Audio Engineering Viva Questions



1. What do you understand about the Acoustic Principle.

The acoustic study is associated with changes in sound waves. Microphones are a type of receiving electro-acoustic transducer that picks up oscillations in sound pressure in an acoustical system.

2. Define a Microphone? List its Types.

Microscopic devices transform sound signals into electrical (audio) impulses. Only in the air can it be implemented. Pressure microphones and pressure gradient microphones are the two types of microphones.

3. Discuss a Pressure Microphone? Mention its Examples.

The acoustic pressure operates mainly on one side of the moving element in pressure microphones, and the output is proportionate to the applied pressure.

Examples are: carbon microphone, condenser microphone

Piezoelectric microphone & moving coil microphone

4. Discuss a Pressure Gradient Microphone? Give Examples

The acoustic pressure acts mainly on one side of the moving element in pressure microphones, and the output is proportional to the difference in pressure acting on the two sides of the moving element.

Example: Velocity ribbon microphone.

5. List down the Advantages & Disadvantages of Carbon Microphone?

Advantages: High electrical output at a minimal cost and is robust

Disadvantages: Frequency response is low, and a hissing sound is generated.

6. Mention the main application of Carbon Microphones?

The main application of Carbon Microphone is, It is widely used in telephone & radio communication.

7. Discuss the Advantages & Disadvantages of Condenser Microphone?

Advantages are: Low distortion, compact size, and high signal-to-noise ratio 

Disadvantages: High internal impedance needs a voltage range of 200 to 400 volts.

8. Mention the Application of Condenser Microphone?

• In acoustic research for standard calibration 

• Its purpose is to capture sound in high quality.

9. List the Advantages & Disadvantages of Piezoelectric Microphone?

The advantages of Piezoelectric Microphone are: It has high sensitivity, small size, low cost, frequency response is good.

The disadvantages of Piezoelectric Microphone are:  It is not suitable for hot climates as the crystal loses the piezoelectric properties.

10. Mention the Application of Piezoelectric Microphone?

It's used in hearing aids and public address systems.

11. List the advantages of Moving Coil Microphones?

The advantages are:

• Lightweight

• Requires no external voltage

• Internal impedance is low

12. What do you know about Velocity Ribbon Microphone?

It functions on the pressure gradient principle, which states that the driving force exerted on a moving part is proportionate to the pressure differential operating on its two sides.

13. Mention the main use of Velocity Ribbon Microphone?

The main use of Velocity Ribbon Microphone It is used particularly in studio work.

14. Discuss the Advantages & Disadvantages of Velocity Ribbon Microphone?

Advantages: Response curve is better than moving coil type.

The Disadvantage is: It would need a built-in type transformer due to its low internal impedance.

15. What is the use of Loudspeaker.

An electro-acoustic transducer or (loudspeaker) transforms electrical signals into sound signals.

16. Compare Carbon Microphone & Condenser Microphone.


Carbon Microphone

Condenser Microphone


Stiffness Controlled System

Mass Controlled System


High Electrical Output

Low Electrical Output


Operation depends upon variation of resistance of carbon button

Operation depends upon variation of capacitance of a capacitor


17. Compare Condenser Microphone & Piezoelectric Microphone.


Condenser Microphone

Piezoelectric Microphone


Stiffness Controlled System

Mass Controlled System


High Electrical Output

Low Electrical Output


Operation depends upon piezoelectric effect

Operation depends upon variation of capacitance of a capacitor


18. List the Characteristics of Loudspeaker?

• Achieves near-perfect efficiency (100%)

• Input signal is faithfully created

• Harmonic and inter modulations are not present

19. List the Types of Loudspeaker?

The different types of loudspeakers are:

• Dynamic cone-type moving coil loudspeaker.

• Horn Type moving-coil loudspeaker

• Electrostatic type loudspeaker

20. Mention the Advantages & Disadvantages of Dynamic Cone Type Loudspeaker?

The advantages are: Compact in size, better response in the audio range, and low cost

The disadvantages are: Low efficiency, narrow directivity, and low power

21. Mention the Application of Dynamic Cone Type Loudspeaker?

• The main application is: it is used in all audio systems

22. Discuss the Advantages of Horn Type Loudspeaker?

• This speaker's sound impact is extremely high and efficient

 • The diaphragm is reduced in size

• The power handling capability is over 100 watts

23. What are the Benefits of Electrostatic Loudspeakers?

• These are the loudspeakers that are employed in high-fidelity applications.

24. Give the Comparison between Cone Type & Horn Type Loudspeaker.


Cone Type Loudspeaker

Horn Type Loudspeaker


This speaker's sound effect is less.

This speaker has an efficient and strong sound impact.


The diaphragm is larger.

The diaphragm is decreasing in size.


The power handling capacity ranges from a few milliwatts to a few hundred watts.

More than 100 watts of power handling capability


25. What are the Speaker Specifications?

• Speaker frame diameter

 • Speaker type and wattage rating

• Voice coil impedance

26. Compare Woofer & Tweeter.





It's used to reproduce low-frequency sounds.

It's used to reproduce high-frequency sounds.


It has a big cone.

It features a cone with a small diameter.


More cone depth and a higher wattage rating

With a lower wattage rating and a smaller cone depth.


27. Characterize Cross Over Network?

• Various control circuits are employed to improve the quality and performance of amplifiers and radio receivers. These circuits are termed cross-over networks.

28. What is CD? Mention its Layers.

CDs may hold a wide range of data forms, including text, images, videos, and software. It has a diameter of 12cm (5inch). It is made up of three layers: a transparent base, a thin metallic layer, and a protective acrylic coating on the outer layer.

29. What are the Advantages of CD?

• Excellent Frequency Range

• High Signal-to-Noise Ratio

• Small Size

 • Low Distortion

30. What is MP3?

MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 is abbreviated as MP3. It is a lossy data compression-based digital encoding standard. Moving Picture Experts Group is an acronym for Moving Picture Experts Group. It's used to compress moving images. It's a format for audio alone.

31. What is DVD?

DVDs can hold a broad range of data forms, including text, images, music, video, and software. Because of the precise encoding and extremely thin track thickness, manufacturing accuracy is required.

32. What are the Basics of Hi-Fi Systems?

• There should be no 'frequency distortion', 'non-linear distortion', or 'spatial distortion'.

33. Expand DTS.

DTS stands for - Digital Theater Sound

34. What is Hi-Fi System?

High fidelity, or simply Hi-Fi, is defined as sound that is reproduced with a high degree of resemblance to the original or live sound.

35. Define Stereophonic System.

A stereophonic system is a two-channel sound recording and reproduction system that provides the reproduced sound with a sense of depth and direction.

36. What is Bit Rate?

When ripping a CD to MP3 format, the bit rate is used to indicate how many kilobits the file may use each second of audio.

37. What is Surround Sound System?

The multichannel audio technique is used to improve the sound quality of a recorded source. It is for the creation of a 3D sphere of human hearing using audio channels.

Sreejith Hrishikesan

Sreejith Hrishikesan is a ME post graduate and has been worked as an Assistant Professor in Electronics Department in KMP College of Engineering, Ernakulam. For Assignments and Projects, Whatsapp on 8289838099.

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