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Wednesday, 12 January 2022

Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications of Spread Spectrum

Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications of Spread Spectrum


Major Applications of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS)


1. Anti-jamming application that protects a jamming signal.

2. Signal transmission with low detectability — the signal is intentionally delivered at a low power level. As a result, the signal is known as an LPI signal since it has a low risk of being intercepted.

3. Supporting a large number of simultaneous signal transmissions on the same channel, such as code division multiple access (CDMA) or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) (SSMA).


Major Applications of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FH-SS) System


1. For mobile communication, CDMA systems based on FH spread spectrum transmissions are particularly appealing.

2. Wi-wireless Fi's local area networks (WLAN) standard.

3. Bluetooth's Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) protocol.


Commercial Applications of Spread Spectrum Techniques


Spread spectrum signals are employed for the following purposes:


1) combating or mitigating the negative effects of jamming (Intentional interference). It can also be utilized for military purposes.

2) Allowing numerous users to send messages over the same channel bandwidth at the same time. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access is a method of digital communication in which each user (transmitter-receiver pair) has a unique PN code for sending over a common channel bandwidth (SSMA). This is a common approach in digital wireless communications.

3) Minimizing inadvertent interference caused by other channel users.

4) self-interference suppression owing to multipath propagation.

5) Hiding a signal by transmitting it with low strength, making it impossible to detect in the presence of background noise for an accidental listener. It's also known as a signal with a low probability of intercept (LPI).

6) Maintaining communication privacy while additional listeners are present.

7) In radar and navigation, obtaining precise range (time delay) and range rate (velocity) readings.


Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS) System


The advantages of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum are:


1. It is the most effective technology for combating deliberate interference (jamming).

2. It has a high level of anti-multipath signal discrimination. As a result, multipath reception interference is successfully reduced.

3. When compared to other systems, the DS-SS system outperforms them in the presence of noise.


Disadvantages of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum are:


1. The output rate of the PN code generator must be high. The length of such a sequence must be sufficient to ensure that it is random.

2. The acquisition time using the serial search method is too long. As a result, the DS-SS system is slower.


Advantages and Disadvantages of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FH-SS) System


Some advantages of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum are:


1. The PG system has a larger processing gain than the DS-SS system.

2. The distance between two points has little effect on synchronization.

3. The acquisition time for the serial search system with FH-SS is shorter.


Some disadvantages of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum are:


1. The FH-SS system's bandwidth is excessive (in GHz)

2. Digital frequency synthesizers, which are complex and costly, are required.

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