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Wednesday, 24 March 2021

List of Biomedical Devices

Here are a list of biomedical equipment used in Hospitals,

Electrocardiograph (ECG)


Electrocardiograph (ECG) is an instrument used to diagnose heart disorders. For each time the heart beats, ECG produces the electrical currents. Through these currents, we can examine the rate and pattern of contraction of the heart. An electrocardiograph picks up these currents and records them on paper. The electrocardiograph may be connected to a printer, which prints the record. This record is called an electrocardiogram, often abbreviated to ECG. The electrocardiograph may also be connected to an oscilloscope, an instrument that displays the currents on a TV-type screen. An electrocardiograph contains amplifying and recording equipment. Wires run from the machine to electrodes-strips of metal that conduct electricity. In 1903 Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven invented the first crude electrocardiograph in the form of a string galvanometer. He was awarded the 1924 Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology for this work.


Electroencephalograph (EEG)


Electroencephalograph is an instrument used to measure and record the electrical voltages produced by neurons in the brain. A recording of this electrical activity is called an Electroencephalograph. Doctors and neuroscientists use the electroencephalograph to study normal brain activity, as well as abnormal brain states that caused by injury, tumour, infection or even death. To record an electroencephalogram, medical personnel attach electrodes from the electroencephalograph to the patient's scalp. Hans Berger, a German psychiatrist invented the first electroencephalograph in 1929 to measure the rhythmical electrical activity of the human brain


Thermometer


Thermometer is a biomedical device that measures the temperature of solid, liquid and gases. The action of a thermometer is based on the fact that certain measurable physical characteristics of substances change when the temperature changes. These characteristics include the volume of a liquid and the length of a solid. Another is the resistance - that is, the opposition to the flow of electricity - in an electrical conductor. There are three principal types of thermometres: (1) liquid-in-glass, (2) deformation type and (3) electrical. Many types of thermometers are made as both digital thermometres and disposable thermometers.


Syringe


Syringe is a pump-like device. It is a tube, tapered at one end, with a plunger or a soft, hollow bulb at the other. The plunger or bulb either creates suction or forces fluid from the syringe. Syringes are used to spray or inject liquids or to remove them by suction.


Spirometer


Spirometer is an instrument that measures the amount of air a person breathes. Doctors use spirometers mainly to diagnose the certain respiratory disorders and to evaluate treatment. A common type of spirometer consists of two cylinders, one filled with air and the other with water. Both cylinders are open at one end. The air-filled cylinder, which is attached to weights, floats open-end down in the water-filled cylinder. The patient breathes through the mouth into a tube extending from the air cylinder. When the person exhales, the amount of air in this cylinder increases and the cylinder rises in the water. As the patient inhales, air leaves the cylinder and it falls. The movement of the air cylinder provides a measure of the volume of air breathed and is recorded on a strip of paper called a spirogram.


Catheter


The first catheter was made in 1929 by a German physician named, Werner Theodor Otto Forssmann. He made it with a thin rubber tube.  It was intended to examine the diseased hearts. In 1936, other physicians of United States named Dickinson W Richards and Andre F Cournand make developments on Forssmann's catheter and experimented on animals. But the first successful human cardiac catheterization was happened in 1941 under the control of physicians named, Richards and Cournand. The catheter can measure the rate of flow of blood, oxygen and also the blood pressure.


Humidifier


Humidifier is a biomedical device which increases the amount of moisture in indoor air or a stream at air. The working principle of Humidifier is by letting water to evaporate from a pan or from a wet surface or by circulating moisture in air. Humidifiers are used in industry to create an atmosphere suitable for testing or processing certain materials. In homes, humidifiers help reduce static electricity and prevent wood structures and furniture from becoming brittle.


Ophthalmoscope


Ophthalmoscope is an optical instrument used for examining the interior part of the eye. Ophthalmologists and optometrists can diagnose many eye conditions by using the ophthalmoscope to examine abnormalities in the eye. There are two main types of ophthalmoscopes. They are the direct ophthalmoscope and the indirect ophthalmoscope. The direct ophthalmoscope contains a light, a prism and a mirror and lenses. These parts are mounted in the head of the instrument, which is attached to a handle containing a battery. The prism and mirror project the light on the back of the eye. The lenses enable the examiner to focus the light to provide a clear, magnified view of the eye's interior. The indirect ophthalmoscope consists of a light worn on the examiner's head and a lens held in front of the patient's eye. This instrument enables the examiner to see a larger area than the direct ophthalmoscope does, but with lower magnification. The ophthalmoscope was invented in 1851 by German physician and physicist Hermann Ludwig Von Helmholtz for the purpose of examining the interior of an eye through its pupil.


Pace Maker


Clarence Walton Lillehei, an American physician built the first pacemaker in 1957. Lillehei’s pacemaker was an electric unit that could be inserted in the patients chest where it would give off an electrical jolt in order to regulate the pace of the heart beat.


Sphygmomanometer


In 1863 French physiologist Etienne Jules Marey invented the first sphygmograph for the purpose of recording blood pressure. An external sphygmomanometer that allowed the measurement of blood pressure in clinical settings was developed in 1896 by Scipione Riva-Rocci (Italy).


Sphygmometer


The sphygmometer was invented in 1835 by French physician Julius Herisson. It transmitted impulses from the pulse beat to a mercury column and made each beat visible to the observer. Herisson 's sphygmometer was the first tool to visually show and numerically measure the pulse beat without the need to puncture an artery.


Audiometer


To aid his research on the mechanics of the cochlea, Hungarian-born physicist Georg Von Bekesy (U.S) developed an “audiometer” during the 1960s. Designed to test the hearing function, it was able to distinguish between deafness caused by functional loss in the cochlea and that caused by a problem with the auditory nerve.


Centrifuge


Centrifuge is an instrument used to separate two liquids mixed together, or solid particles that are mixed with water or any liquid. The centrifuge causes the heavier liquid or the solid particles to move to the bottom of the container, leaving the lighter substances on the top. It usually consists of a large wheel connected to an electric motor. The mixtures to be separated are balanced in containers on each side of the wheel. When the motor is turned on, the wheel rotates rapidly and the containers swing out from the centre. A smaller centrifuge consists of a small rotating top in which test tubes of material can be placed at an angle. The centrifuges turn from 800-6000 times per minute. The ultra centrifuge is a newer kind of centrifuge with tremendous speed. It can spin at around 80,000 turns per minute. The rotating part of an ultra centrifuge touches nothing solid. It is balanced on a cushion of air. The ultra centrifuge whirls by means of jets of compressed air that touch the outer surface. Ultra centrifuges are used to study viruses.


Endoscope


Endoscope is a medical instrument used to determine the interior part of a hollow organ or a cavity of body. Unlike other devices, endoscopes are put directly into the organ or cavity that is to be examined. There are several types of endoscopes. Most endoscopes consist of a flexible or rigid hollow tube with a lens at one end. Arnaud designed the first endoscopic lamp used to illuminate the interior of orifices in humans around 1819. He built his instrument with a biconvex lens.


Incubator


Incubator is an apparatus that maintains a favorable environment for growth and development. Some types of incubators are used by hatcheries to hatch chicks from eggs. Others are used in hospitals to maintain the lives of newborn or prematurely born babies. Some are used in laboratories for research. All these incubators differ in design, but their chief function-to provide a controlled environment - is the same. In 1884 an incubator warmed by Kerosene lamps appeared in Paris at La Maternite. American physician Julius H. Hess designed an electric incubator for premature infants and filed for a patent in 1933.


Microscope


Microscope is an instrument that magnifies extremely small objects so they can be seen easily. It is one of the most important tools for diagnostic purposes. For instance, Doctors and biologists, use microscopes to determine bacteria and blood cells.

 

Laryngoscope


In 1854, a music teacher named Manuel Patricio Rodriguez Garcia from England developed the first laryngoscope that permitted a clear view of glottis at work. Garcia found that the vocal cords are the reason for the voice and its tones. With this laryngoscope, it became possible to see any obstacles occurring in the larynx.


Stethoscope


An instrument doctors use to hear the sounds produced by certain organs of the body, such as the heart, lungs, intestines, veins and arteries. The stethoscope picks up the sounds made by these organs and excludes other sounds. Listening in this way, known as auscultation, is an aid to diagnosis. It alerts the doctor to characteristic changes of sound caused by different types of diseases. The stethoscope consists of a body contact piece, which is placed against the body of the patient and ear pieces, which are placed in the ears of the doctor. Hollow rubber tubing connects the body contact piece to the ear pieces. Doctors use either a bell, diaphragm or combination bell-diaphragm body contact piece. The bell type of contact piece picks up low-pitched sounds. The diaphragm type picks up high-pitched sounds. Rene Laennec a French physician, made the first stethoscope in 1816.


Thermoscope


In 1626 Italian physician Santorio Santorio, also known as Sanctorius, adapted the thermometer invented by Galileo Galilei (Italy) in 1593 for the purpose of measuring human temperature in a clinical setting. Santorio's device was called a “thermoscope".


Ventillator


Ventillator is a machine that helps a person breathe. A ventillator may be used if illness or an accident causes breathing to become difficult or to stop. It also can be used to administer oxygen or to treat a patient with a mist containing medications. Ventillators are often called respirators or resuscitators. There are two basic types - positive pressure and negative pressure ventillators. A positive pressure ventillator forces air into the lungs under pressure. After the lungs are filled, the machine cuts off the pressure and the natural elasticity of the lungs expels the air. Such machines operate as either assist ventillators or automatic ventillators. Assist ventillators are triggered by the patient's breathing. They help extremely weak people inhale. Automatic ventillators control respiration completely and aid people whose breathing muscles are paralysed.

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