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Friday, 26 March 2021

Branches of Medical Treatment


Here are a list of branches of medical treatment are as follows,


In 1847 and 1848, a Scottish doctor named Sir James Y Simpson used chloroform to relieve the pain of childbirth. Queen Victoria was one among the first to be anesthetized during childbirth. Without anesthesia, doctor can’t do complicated surgical operations. As the anesthetic makes the patient to not suffer from pain, it deeply lessens the physical shock and emotional stress during the operation. General anesthesia involves the loss of feeling in the whole body while local anesthesia is the loss of pain sensation in any of the part of the body.


Cardiology is the branch of medicine that deals with diagnosis and treatment of heart disorders. Doctors who specialize in cardiology are called cardiologists. Cardiologists interview and examine patients for possible heart disease. First, the cardiologist asks if the patients has experienced symptoms that suggest heart disease such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and ankle swelling. The cardiologist then examines the patient by checking the blood pressure, by feeling the beat of the heart and checking the pulse.


It is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases. Doctors who specialize in this field are called dermatologists. Skin ailments treated by dermatologists include inflammations, infections, burns and tumours. Dermatologists also treat many children and teen-agers who have acne or certain allergies. Dermatologists are trained to recognize changes in the skin that indicate a disease in other parts of the body.

Forensic Science

Forensic science generally is interpreted as the application of science to legal matters, most often to criminal cases. Forensic medical science dates back to the Greeks. In the U.S it began in 1812 in New York City at the college of physicians and surgeons. Later in the 19th century, Alphonse Bertillon (France) established a system based on measurements of the human body. In 1869 the value of fingerprints was established by Sir William Herschel (England).


The history of Neurology started in 1760's with the publication of work of Swiss physiologist Albrecht von Haller's book on the topic, human physiology. In this book he discarded popular notions about nerves in favor of data he gained experimentally. He proved, for instance, that stimulus to a nerve produced a sharp muscle contraction and thereby demonstrated that nervous stimulation controlled muscle movement. He also showed that nerves channel and carry impulses that produce sensation in tissues.


Ophthalmology is the field of medicine involving the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. An ophthalmologist, sometimes called an oculist, must have a medical degree and three to five years of specialized training in a hospital. Ophthalmologists limit their medical practice to the eye. They examine the eye with special equipment and determine the degree of refraction in the lens of the eye. Refraction is a measurement of the eye's ability to see. If the examination shows that the patient needs glasses, the ophthalmologist gives the patient a prescription for them. Glasses are made by an optician. An ophthalmologist who discovers that an eye condition requires corrective surgery is qualified to perform the necessary operation. Albrecht Von Graefe (Germany) is known as the founder of modern ophthalmology because of his contribution during the mid 1800's.


Optometry is a profession devoted to the care of vision. Optometrists give eye health and vision examinations. They diagnose vision problems that affect a persons ability to see near and distant objects clearly and to judge distance. They also test the ability of the eyes to work together ana to change focus easily Optometrists prescribe eye glasses and contact lenses to correct faulty vision. They also may recommend vision therapy to help a person overcome certain vision problems. If an optometrist diagnoses symptoms that indicate disease in the eye or any other part of the body, the person is referred to a doctor.


Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry in medicine that deals with the prevention and correction of irregular positions of the teeth. In addition to causing poor personal appearance, irregularly positioned teeth are difficult to clean. Thus, they are more likely to decay and promote gum diseases. They also can cause chewing and speech problems. Irregularities in the position of teeth are called malocclusions. Malocclusions usually arise during childhood as the teeth grow. They most commonly occur when the teeth are too large for the available law space. Under such conditions, the teeth become crowded and turned out of position. In some cases, one of the jaw bones is larger than the other, creating a condition of overbite or under bite. Malocclusions can sometimes be prevented by the early removal of certain deciduous teeth.


Orthopaedics is a branch of medicine that deals with treatment of disorders of bones and muscles and their related tissues. Doctors who practice orthopaedics are called orthopaedic surgeons. They treat a wide range of disorders including fractures and injuries to ligaments, tendons and so on. They also treat the deformities of the limbs and spine. Some orthopaedic disorders are present at birth. Others occur during childhood due to problems of growth or in later life as a result of aging. Still others result from injury or illness. People injured in car accidents and athletic or recreational activities account for a large number of the patients treated by orthopaedic specialists.


Osteology is the science related with the structure and function of bones. Osteologists study the bones of human beings and animals. They can determine the sizes and living habits of prehistoric animals from bones. They also can tell the age, sex, height and weight of the person or animal from which the bones came. Osteology also includes the study of bone disorders and diseases.


Pathology is the study of disease or any condition that limits the power, length or enjoyment of life Comparative pathology compares human diseases with those of various animals. Human pathology is a branch of medicine. Pathologists use modern instruments and methods, such as electron microscopy, to help them recognize the changes caused by disease in the tissues and organs of the body. They try to explain why a diseased body acts differently from a normal body Pathologists use their knowledge of diseased tissues and body fluids to aid treatment. Pathological tests help doctors diagnose a disease and to establish the extent of its attack. These tests may include examination of the blood, urine and tissues. The use of laboratory tests to diagnose disease is called clinical pathology.

Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery is a branch of medicine that deals with the repair or reshapes the defects of body. It includes repairing the muscles, bones, nerves and blood vessels. The origin of word plastic comes from a Greek word that means shape or mould. Plastic surgeon moulds the body tissues. They rearrange, take away or replace tissue to reinstate normal function to deformed or injured body parts. Plastic surgeons also attempt to recover the look of aging tissue.

Sports Medicine

Sports medicine is a field that provides health care for physically active people. Its main purpose is to minimize the risk of injury and to treat effectively injuries that do occur. Sports medicine draws on the knowledge of many specialists, including doctors, athletic trainers, physiologists and physical educators. These professionals’ help in shaping the kind of training required to help athletes carry out their top abilities without injury. They also evaluate coaching methods, the enforcement of regulations to prevent injuries and the design and use of athletic equipment and facilities.


Surgery is the branch of medicine that deals with the treatment of disease, deformities or injuries by operations. The doctor who performs the operation is called a surgeon. Every doctor has some training in surgery and is qualified to perform simple operations. But surgeons are specially trained so that they have the judgment and skill to perform complicated operations. Four to seven years of training after medical school are necessary for doctors to qualify as surgical specialists.

Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the study of diseases of animals. Animal doctors are called veterinary surgeons or vets. Their work is especially valuable because many animal diseases can be transmitted to human beings. Such diseases are called Zoonoses. They include rabies, brucellosis, tuberculosis, psittacosis.

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