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Thursday, 27 August 2020

System Software Tutorial for Beginners

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Software Packages are ready to run programs. They contain all the necessary components and documentation. They can be purchased from the computer software shop or internet. Popular software packages are Microsoft (Word, Excel, Access, Power Point), Adobe (Adobe Pagemaker, Indesign, Illustrator, Photoshop) and Coreldraw (Coreldraw, Corel photopaint).




Software relates to set of programs. The software controls the hardware parts attached to the computer and make them functional. In other words, it runs the activities of a computer system. Software is a general term used to name the computer programs that installed in the system. Software is mainly classified into two types and they are System Software and Application Software.


System Software

System software is a software that is installed in the system for the functioning of computer hardware. System software will control the running of all the hardware of the computer as well as giving functionality for other programs to use, tools to speed up the system and programs to stay away from attacks. There are several different types of system software they are Operating systems, Utility Programs, Library programs and Translator software.

Operating systems are a group of programs that controls the hardware components easily available to the user and also hide the complexity of the system operation. Operating systems presents a software platform for which the application programs to run. Examples of operating systems are Linux, Windows, VMS etc.

Utility programs are small controlling programs with a restricted capability. They are typically operated by the computer operator to sustain a smooth operation of computer system. Examples of utility programs include copy, paste, delete, file searching, disk cleanup etc. They are also can be separately installable from the operating system.

Library programs are a compiled collection of sub routines.

Translator software includes Compiler, Interpreter and Assembler.

(1) Compiler compiles machine language instructions for every program instruction of high level language. It is a program translator and scans the entire program first and then translates it into machine code. A compiler not only translates program statements but also produces a list of errors in the source program. It normally indicates the position and nature of these errors.

(2) Interpreter is another type of program translator for translating high level language into machine language. It is a program that analyses each line of code in the high level language program and then carries out the specified actions. Interpreter translates and executes a source program line by line.

(3) Assembler is a program that converts an assembly language program into machine language program. The entire program must be assembled before it is executed.


Application software


Application software is a set of one or more programs designed to carry out operations for a specified application. Examples of application software include MS word, MS Excel, a console game, a spread-sheet system etc.

Examples of System Software



Windows is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed to allow you to use the computer for various tasks. It is developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Windows is much easier than Disk Operating System (DOS). A window contains Title bar, Menu bar, Tool bar, Worksheet, Scroll bars and Status bar. The title bar indicates the contents of the window. Menu bar displays the menu items, available in the application. Tool bars are used to display various tools to manage the application you are using.

Work sheet provides area for your interface. Your data/picture will be shown in the work-sheet. It is just like your edit screen in DOS. Scroll bars are used to pass through your document in the worksheet. Horizontal scroll bar and vertical scroll bar are given accordingly. At the bottom of the window a status bar shows the present status of the contents of your worksheet. MS-Windows turned out to be a complete operating system with the arrival of Windows 95.


■ Windows 1.0, Windows 2.0, and Windows 2.1x

■ Windows 3.0, 3.1x

■ Windows 95, 98, ME

■ Windows NT Family includes NT 3.1, 3.50, 3.51, NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows 7 and Windows 8. The newest version is Windows 10.

■ Most recent mobile OS version is Windows Phone 10.


Disk Operating System (DOS)


Disk Operating System (DOS) was the first widely installed operating system for personal computers. It was originally available in two versions. They are PC DOS version developed by IBM and MS-DOS version developed by Microsoft. DOS is a non graphical line oriented command or menu driven operating systems with a relatively simple interface but not a friendly user interface.

The first version of windows actually ran on top of the DOS operating system. But the later versions of windows run on its own. They do not require DOS. Over recent years three companies have produced DOS - Microsoft, IBM, and Novell. Novell has now dropped out of the market and IBM's share is marginal. Microsoft DOS is now in the defacto standard.


Data base Management


The information that is required for day to day operations of do organization can be stored in a computer. These pieces of information can be inter-related to each other and can be accessed in any manner desired. The set of information thus placed in a computer is known as its data base. The software that manages such data is called DBMS (Data Base Management System). A Database Management System provides a computerized record keeping system that meets their needs. Database Management Software is among the most commonly used software for personal computers. Business applications built on Database Management System are used extensively on microcomputers, minicomputers and mainframes. Popular Database management Systems are Informix, Ingres, Integra, Oracle, Sybase, Unify etc.




A computer language is a means of communication to exchange information between the user and the computer. Computer language is of two types - High level language and Low level language.

Low level language is a machine dependent language which offers few control instructions and data types. Low level language is of two types - Machine language and Assembly language.

A Machine language uses binary numbers (Os and 1s). A computer can execute a program using binary numbers only.

In Assembly Language letters and symbols called mnemonic codes are used to develop programs. Mnemonic codes are the short words used for a lengthy set of information. Programming in this language is simpler and less time consuming than programming in machine language.

High level language is developed to create application programs which are not dependent upon machines. It permits the user to use understandable codes, using the language structure. High Level Language is also known as problem oriented language because these programs are useful for solving a particular type of problem.

The High level languages includes: Fortran, Basic, Cobol, C, C++, Visual C++, Visual Basic, Java, Pascal etc. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is the language for business application. C Language is created by Dennis M. Ritchie. Niklaus Wirth is the creator of PASCAL language.


Computer Languages & Developers


■ Basic - Thomas Kurtz

■ PASCAL - Nikalaus Wirth

■ C - Dennis Ritchie

■ C++ - Bjarne Stroustrup

■ JAVA - James Gosling

■ COBOL - Grace Murray Hopper

■ FORTRAN - John Backus

■ LOGO – Seymour Pappert

Tuesday, 25 August 2020

Computer Organization for Beginners

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A computer is organized into three basic units:

(i) Central Processing Unit

(ii) Memory Unit

(iii) Input/Output Unit

(i) Central Processing Unit (CPU)


CPU is the component of a personal computer system that interprets and performs instructions provided by the software. The Central Processing Unit or CPU, is the most important part of the computer. It is called as the brain of the computer. It makes all the required calculations and processes data. The CPU can be divided into three main components: Arithmetic and Logic Unit, Control Unit and Register.

Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) performs all the mathematical and logical operations on the information supplied to the CPU.

Control Unit (CU) directs the working of the CPU.

Register is a very high speed storage area inside the CPU. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each will help to determine the power and speed of a CPU.


(ii) Memory Unit (MU)


Memory is split into two types and they are Internal Memory and the External Memory

Internal Memory: Internal Memory is also known as primary memory. RAM and ROM are examples.

RAM stands for Random Access Memory. RAM is Computer's short-term Memory. RAM is a volatile memory which stores information only as long as the computer has power. Once the computer is shut down, the information stored in RAM is lost. Thus, the information in RAM needs to be saved to a storage device before the computer is turned off.

ROM stands for Read Only Memory. The instructions in ROM are also called firm-ware. The instructions in ROM are non-volatile. They stay in ROM even when the computer is turned off therefore it is called the permanent memory.

Cache is another type of computer memory that makes the CPU process data or instructions faster. Cache is a high speed, high performance memory to which read and write operations can be done faster than RAM.

External Memory: External Memory allows the permanent storage of large quantities of data. External memory can be Secondary or tertiary.

Secondary Storage Devices are used to store information that needs to be used again and again. Hard disks, USB, Flash Drives, CDs, DVDs, Memory Card, Solid State Disk (SSD) are some secondary storage devices.

Tertiary Storage Device is used to store information that is needed occasionally for review purposes or for restoring information after a system failure. It includes magnetic tape, network server or high capacity optical disc.


Memory of a Computer


Memory is usually measured in bytes. The smallest measurement of memory is bit.

■ 8 bits = 1 byte.

■ 1 Kilobyte (KB) = 1,024 Bytes

■ 1 Megabyte (MB) = 1,024 Kilobytes

■ 1 Gigabyte (GB) = 1024 Megabytes

■ 1 Terabyte (TB) = 1024 Gigabytes

■ 1024 terabytes = 1 Petabyte (PB)


(iii) Input/Output


Computer peripherals include all the additional hardware components grouped around the CPU and memory. These are the Input/output (I/O) units and storage devices such as hard disk, VDU (Video Display Unit), Key board, Mouse etc.

There has to be a physical channel that permits users to supply information to the computer. Devices that allow users to supply data to the computer are termed as 'input' devices.  Input unit enables us to enter data into a computer. The common input devices are Keyboard and Mouse.

Similarly, here would be a physical channel that permits a computer to convey the processed information to the outside world. They are called 'output' devices.  Some of the output devices are Monitor, Printer and Speakers.

Input and output devices are indispensable, but are not a part of the CPU. They are also called peripheral devices, suggesting that they lie on the periphery of the CPU.


Some Input Devices


Optical Character Reader (OCR): An optical character reader is used to read characters of a special type font printed on conventional paper with conventional ink. A logical system then determines the character from the pattern analysed. Only a limited number of characters in a given font can be recognised.

Magnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR) :Banks use another input device called a Magnetic Ink Character Reader. MICR is a character recognition technology; for characters printed on documents (such as cheques) using a special magnetic ink. A magnetic ink character reader is used to find such characters.

Optical Mark Reader (OMR): Here, special pre printed forms designed with boxes. Each box is explained distinctly so that user clearly understands what response he is marking. Such a document is read by an optical mark reader (OMR) which translates the marks into electrical pulses which are fed to the computer. Such documents are mostly used in areas where responses are one out of a few alternatives and the volume of data to be processed is large.

Barcode Reader: Here, small bars of varying thickness and spacing are printed on packages, tags, etc., that are read by the optical reader and converted into electrical pulses. The bar code is read by a hand - held optical device which illuminates the barcode, the reflected light is sensed by the sensor and converted to bits and inputs to a computer's memory. This device is commercially used in retail stores and book shops.

Magnetic disc and tape: Magnetic disc can record data as output from main memory (such as results of computations) or can serve as input devices, returning data to main memory.

Saturday, 15 August 2020

Search Engine Optimization Tutorial for Beginners

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What is Search Engine?

While a user follows the links and moves from location to location, it is just like surfing through a vast area of information. The phrase "Surfing the net" is thus used quite often in the Internet world. The web browser is like window open to the Internet.

The Internet is like a huge-library and a vast collection of information on almost every topic imaginable. But how does one find out what wants on the net?

One way is to know the address of the website where you want to go. Enter this address in the address box in the web browser. This way, only known sites can be visited. Sometimes you may want to view some specific information. But you may not have the addresses of the website where you can find the information. Then you need to search for that information on the web. Fortunately, there are programs called "Search engines" that make your task easy. Search engines are programs that search through indexes or directories of web pages for particular information.

Using a Search Engine

To find the desired information, enter a word or short phrase into the search box and click the 'Search' button. It is a good idea to first note down some key words or phrases that best represent the required topic. The text entered into the search box forms the "Search query". The way in which the search query is entered affects the matches found. Examine the search rules and options for the particular search engine. Search engines let you specify whether to search for any word, or an exact phrase.

How Search Engines Work?

Search engines have three main functions

Crawling: Crawling is the process in which any search engine’s bot systematically crawls the Web. It is also known as crawler or spider that is mainly for the purpose of index or update pages. The Crawler scours the World Wide Web in search of code/content of every URL they find.

Indexing: It stores and organizes the content crawled in the web. Once a page is listed in the index, it will be displayed in the search engines for any relevant queries.

Ranking: Crawling and indexing data are keeping web data within the database of the search engines. Search engine has its own set of algorithms and produce different results. It provides the pieces of content that is well suited to a searcher's query, where those results are ranked by most relevant to least relevant.

Search Engine Algorithm

It is a set of guidelines, or an extraordinary formula, that the search engine uses to determine the implication of a website page, and each search engine has its own set of rules. The algorithms as, they are diverse for each search engine, are additionally closely cautious secrets.

Relevancy: In search engine algorithm the principal thing to search is relevancy of the page. It is simply scanning for keywords, or looking at how they are functioning and the algorithm will check whether this website page has any relevancy at all for a specific keyword. Additionally keyword location is an important factor for the significance of the website. Keywords utilizing frequently is essential to relevancy. If the keywords appear frequently, the site will rank better.

Individual Factors: Individual factors influence the search engine to vary from each other search engines. Each search engine has different algorithms, and the specific elements of these algorithms give different results on Google, Bing, MSN or Yahoo. Most vital individual factor is the quantity of pages a search engine indexes. Some of the search engines are additionally penalize for spamming.

Off – page factors: Off page factors are still important for all search engines in ranking. They are click through rates and linking. Click through rates and linking are significant to value the genuine clients and visitors. This will make a calculation to rank the page higher.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Search engine optimization is the process of getting traffic from the free, natural or organic search results. Just the name given to the action is to enhance search engine rankings. Search engine optimization may target various types of search including picture search, video search, local search, and news web search tools. It is the process of enhancing the visibility of a website or a website page in web search engines like,, and Search engine optimization is web promoting or web marketing that utilizes strategies to enhance the volume or nature of visitor traffic to a site page.

SEO Techniques

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the activity of improving web pages more search engine friendly. There are mainly 2 types of SEO techniques,

On-page optimization (or On-page SEO) is the technique of skyrocket the position of websites to the top of search results. It can be done by making changes to meta descriptions, meta keywords, title, content, structuring and increasing page-load speed.

Off-page optimization is the activities that are done away from a website to improve search rankings. The search engines determine the trust, website authority, relevancy, and page authority of a website to rank the web pages. Creating backlinks from niche relevant, high page rank and quality sites will improve your website’s positioning in search results. Off Page optimization is not only to create backlinks, but also includes social bookmarking, SMM, SMO and so on. Here traffic and citations also matters. Some of the off page optimization techniques are guest posting, article submission, forum participation and so on.

Introduction to SERP (Search Engine Result Page)

Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs) are the result pages displayed by search engines for any query searched by a searcher. These are the unpaid result pages displayed by Google in response to a query by a searcher. SERP's normally displays two kinds of results. They are Organic results and Paid search results.

Organic results : Organic results are results, that are displayed on search engine result pages naturally. It is unpaid and most appropriate search results listed as per relevancy. It incorporates a title and link with short meta description displayed on the SERP as per the searched keyword.

Paid search results : Paid search results otherwise called as PPC (Pay Per Click) is the way of displaying the web pages in the search results by paying the search engine for each clicks. It is an auctioned based system. Here the advertisers only need to pay for clicks and not for number of times the websites appeared in the search engines. They are usually placed at the top and bottom of the search engine results page.

Friday, 14 August 2020

Microsoft Paint Tutorial for Beginners

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The paint accessory enables you to create pictures by using your mouse to draw on the screen. Before you can paint to create pictures, you should know your paint application window. To open the Window,

Choose start, programs, Accessories (That is, click on the start button to open the start menu, point to the programs sub menu to open it, then point to the Accessories folder to open it).

Click on the paint application. You will get the paint window.

The various tools are as shown in the figure.

FREE FORM TOOL – The free form select tool allows you to select part of the picture (to move, copy or edit it). After selecting this tool, you can drag the free form shape around the picture to select any portion of it.

SELECT TOOL – The select tool selects rectangular parts of the picture. You first click on this and then drag a rectangle around the picture part.

ERASER TOOL – The Eraser tool when picked allows you to erase the portion of the picture over which it is dragged.

FILL WITH COLOUR – The fill with colour tool fills part of the picture with foreground colour. To fill an object, it should be a closed figure with no gaps.

PICK COLOUR– The pick colour tool allows you to select foreground or background colour from the picture itself. Select pick colour tool. To select foreground colour left click on colour in picture. To select background colour right click on colour in the picture.

MAGNIFIER – The magnifier tool when selected and clicked on the picture will magnify it.

PENCIL – The pencil tool can be used to draw free form lines.

BRUSH – The brush tool can be used to draw with brush.

TEXT TOOL – The text tool allows you to add text in picture. After selecting text tool, select foreground colour, drag rectangle in drawing area to hold the text. You can type a text in this box.

Other tools like Line, Curve, Rectangle, Polygon, Ellipse or rounded rectangle can be selected to draw the respective shapes.

Creating a new picture

In the paint Window, select files, new. Select a drawing tool by clicking it. Move your mouse on to the drawing area and drag it to draw.

Example: Let us draw a simple map to “My House”.

Use the line tool to draw 3 road lines. To draw a horizontal or vertical line, you should shift drag in the drawing area. That is, you should hold down the shift key while dragging. If you make a mistake, choose Edit from the menu on top, select Undo and then try again.

Use the rectangle tool to draw the first floor of My house. Use the Line tool to draw the roof. Make sure the roof is a closed triangle with no gaps in its edges. Use the fill with colour tool to fill the roof with brown colour.

Use the ellipse tool to draw a small ellipse filled with red colour at the junction of the roads. When you shift drag to draw an object, always release the mouse button before releasing the shift key.

Use the rounded rectangle tool to draw a rounded rectangle in the upper left part of the picture.

Now you draw a river and forest in the following steps.

Use the pencil tool to draw the left and right river edges. Make sure that it is a closed figure. Use fill colour tool to colour it blue.

Use the pencil tool to draw the forest border which should also be a closed figure. Fill it with green colour.

Select Text tool and draw a rectangle inside the rounded rectangle. Type the text “Map to My house” in the text box and click the left mouse button. Similarly you may add names to the roads.

The finished map now looks as shown in figure.

Saving the picture file

To save a picture file for the first time, choose file option from the main menu. Select ‘Save as’ option. A save as dialog box appears on the screen. Specify the target folder, file type and file name and click on save.

Opening a picture file

To open an existing picture file, choose file, open. An open dialog appears on the screen. Specify the folder, file type and file name and click on open button.

Thursday, 13 August 2020

Windows Operating System Tutorial for Beginners

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Microsoft Windows Operating System is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) based OS. They can control hardware, run programs and organize information.

To start Windows 7

You have to do the following steps to start windows running.

Turn on your computer.

If prompted for a log-on name, type your log-on-name.

If prompted for a password, type your password.

Click on OK

If you have Windows 7, you may get your desktop as shown in Figure.

Icons and Windows

An Icon is a small picture that represents a folder, file, or program. When you open an icon, it turn into a Window. Figure shows icons to the Windows. To open icons, double click on the icon with your mouse.


Locate the My Computer icon on your desktop.

Double click on the My Computer icon to open the Window (Shown in Figure).

Maximizing and Restoring a Window

A window can occupy all or part of your screen. A maximized window occupies the entire screen.

A restored window occupies part of the screen is shown in above figure. When a window is restored, its maximize button is displayed. Similarly, when the window is maximized, the restore button is displayed.

Minimizing a Window

A minimized window does not actually appear as a window at all, but rather as a button on the task bar at the bottom of the screen. To minimize a Window, click on its minimize button (― Button) at the top right of the window.

Resizing a Window

You can resize a window manually to any size that fits your screen. This can be done by dragging one of its edges vertically or horizontally using a mouse. To change the Window’s height and width at the same time drag on one of its corners diagonally.

Moving a Window

You can move the window to a new location by dragging the window by its title bar to the desired location.

Scrolling a Window

Sometimes the windows may be too small to display all the items it contains. To display these items, you can scroll the window by clicking on its up, down, left or right scroll arrow. To scroll continuously in small increments, press and hold the left mouse button on the desired scroll arrow.

To scroll a window in large increments, click on its vertical or horizontal scroll bar, but do not click on the scroll box. To scroll continuously in large increments, press and hold the left mouse button on the scroll bar.

Closing a Window

To close a window, click on the window’s close button (X button) at the top right of the window.

The Task Bar and Start Button

The task bar lies at the bottom of the desktop as shown in figure. You can use the task bar to start a program. Click on the start button to open the Start Menu.

Display the icon of the program you want to start.

Click on the program icon.

Starting Wordpad

Windows comes with several handy accessory programs. One such program is wordpad. To open such a program.

Click on start button (located in the lower left corner of your screen) to open the start menu.

Point to programs to display programs sub menu. In this sub menu point to Accessories folder to display a sub menu of its contents. In this sub menu click on wordpad icon to start wordpad. You get a screen as shown in figure.

In order to open an existing file, follow the steps given below,

Click on file to open file menu.

Click on open to display the open dialog box.

In the Look in box, select drive C (assuming your file is stored in this drive). Now locate the folder/files. Select the proper folder or file and double click.

Closing a File

To close a file, click on the close button (X).

Saving a File

To save a file, select save from file menu. A save dialog box appears where you first select the drive and folder in which you want to save the file. Enter the file name in the text box and press the save button.

To view folders and files

A disk-hard disk, floppy, CD-ROM is like a file cabinet. It contains folders, sub folders within folders, sub folders within subfolders within folders and so on. Each of these sub folders can in turn contain multiple program and document files.

You can use My Computer to view a disk’s folders and files by the following steps.

Display your desktop.

Double click on My Computer icon.

Double click on the desired disk drive icon to display its folders and files. Scroll through the window if necessary.

To view the contents of a folder, double click on its icon to open the folder into a Window.

To close a drive/folder window or the My Computer Window, click on its close button.

Using My Computer to copy files to your desktop

You can copy files to your desktop, which makes it easy for you to open these files.

Display the icon of the file you want to copy.

Right drag the icon to an empty area of your desktop.

A shortcut menu appears when you release the right mouse button as shown in figure.

The left mouse button Versus the Right mouse button

To drag, you move the mouse while holding down the left mouse button.

To right drag, you move the mouse while holding down the right mouse button.

To click, you press the left mouse button.

To right click you press the right mouse button.

Deleting files from Desktop

To delete a file from desktop, the steps are

Display the desktop

Select the files you want to delete. To select a single file, click on its icon. To select multiple files, press and hold CTRL Key while clicking (CTRL + Click) on each of their icons. To deselect a file, CTRL + Click on its icon.

Press Delete Key (Del on Keyboard). In the dialog box displayed, click on Yes.

Windows Explorer (File Explorer)

Windows Explorer is a folder/file management program that you can use to

View and change the folder/file structure of your disks.

View and change the contents of your folders and files.

Move, copy, rename, create and delete folders and files.

Start programs and open documents.

Find folders and files.

View and change the properties of files and folder.

Starting Explorer

To start the Explorer, the steps are

Click on start button to open start menu.

Point to programs sub menu and click on the Explorer program icon. The explorer Window will look like Figure.

This Window is divided into two parts.

The Tree Pane (on the left of the fig) which displays the folder tree.

The contents pane (on the right) which displays the folders and files of the selected drive and folder in the tree pane.

You can scroll each explorer pane separately using scroll bars. Explorer tool bar contains buttons for Copy, Delete, Cut, Paste, etc.

Managing Your Folders

Selecting a folder

To select a folder, the steps are

In tree pane, display the folder.

Expand the disk drive on which the folder is stored. (The disk drives reside in My Computer).

Expand the folder’s (grand) parent folders until the folder is displayed.

Click on the folder to expand it.

Moving and copying a folder

To move or copy a folder

Select the required folder which is the source folder that you want to copy.

In the Tree pane select the folder (say windows folder) to which you want to copy the folder.

Verify that the contents pane displays the contents of the Windows folder selected.

Re display the folder you are copying by scrolling through the tree pane, if necessary.

Right drag the folder you want to copy from the tree pane to a blank area of the contents pane.

When you release the right mouse button, a short cut menu appears as shown in figure.

Left click on copy here to copy your selected folder into windows folder.

Note: You can also use Explorer’s cut, copy and paste commands to copy a folder. To do this

Right click on source folder you want to copy.

In the short cut menu that appears, left click cut (to move) or copy (to copy).

Select the destination folder to which you want to copy by clicking on it.

Right click on a blank part of the content’s pane, then left click on paste in the short cut menu.

Renaming a folder

Right click on the folder.

In the short cut menu, left click Rename.

Type your new folder’s name.

Press Enter Key

Deleting a Folder

Right click on the folder

In the short cut menu that appears, left click on delete.

In the confirm dialog box click on yes.

Exiting Windows

To exit windows, click on the start button to open the Start Menu. Now click on the Shut Down Option. Windows opens a shut down Windows dialog box as shown in figure.

Select the option, “Shut Down” by clicking on it.

Click OK button

After a few moments, a message appears informing you that you can safely turn of the computer.

Wednesday, 12 August 2020

Role of Computers in Communication

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Role of Computers in Communication

Computer communications are being used to send and receive electronic mail, engage in on-line conferencing (computer conferencing, teleconferencing or video conferencing), to view and post news on computer bulletin boards, for electronic shopping, banking and brokerage, to get information services, social media networking etc.

1. Bulletin Board Systems (BBS)

This software program permits bulletin board computer to answer telephone calls from user's computers, accept and store messages from outside users and allow access to the information stored in its files. Users can actively exchange ideas and participate in on-going discussions or passively observe the electronic conversation of others. This type of service is offered to a group of people who have similar interests. For example, bulletin may be for a group of employees, customers, clients, patients, readers, students and so on. Life Insurance Company may provide BBS to give general information and answers to the questions of policy holders. Health organizations may have BBS for doctors; industries can provide BBS for their employees and so on. As of March 2019, the largest part of traditional bulletin board systems has migrated to the Internet using Telnet or SSH protocols.

2. Computer Conferencing (Tele Conferencing or Video Conferencing)

The Video Conferencing allows persons sitting at different places to participate in a conference. It is also known as online conferencing. The participants are at their PCs or terminals. This allows people to meet at a common time and communicate over long distances. Executives can save a lot of time by avoiding travel to participate in a conference.

3. Internet

Now-a-days Internet has made information service very easy. One can get almost all kinds of information on Internet in every sphere of life, such as arts, science, medicine, engineering, agriculture, business, industry and so on. E-Mail is the oldest and also the most widely used communication method today. With the help of Internet, Electronic Mail (e-mail) messages are delivered and received.

4. E-Commerce

E-commerce is the procedure of propulsive deals by expanding alertness about an online supply’s product. It is one of the major applications of Computer in Communication. E-commerce companies provides technologies such as electronic mail, mobile commerce, home shopping, electronic funds transfer, travel arrangements, online transaction processing, inventory management systems, EDI Services and automated data collection systems. Other facilities provided by E-commerce are access to financial, demographic and editorial information; stock quotes, market indices etc. are also available.

5. Satellite Communications

A communication satellite is a repeater station in the space that is used for telecommunication of radio and television signals. To transmit large volume of data at high speed, broad channels are employed. Communication satellites are the most widely used broadband channel today. A satellite is the fastest and cheapest medium for the transmission of voice, text, video, data and pictures over lengthy distances. At first, the data are sent to the satellite from one earth station and it converts the data into another form and sends it to the second earth station. Here the satellite acts as a reflector. It accepts signals from one location on the earth and then sends the same signals to another location on the earth. 

6. Defence

Computers are extensively used in defence. Now-a-days smart weapons are being widely used everywhere. These weapons are being widely used in military operations. These weapons use microprocessor-based control systems. Modern tanks, torpedoes, missiles etc. use computerized control systems. A guided missile uses internal computer for its control. Computer’s memory holds the detailed map of the target area. Photographs of the target are taken and compared with stored map before the missile hits the target. Such missiles can fly into dangerous zones without the risk of pilot’s life. Computers play a very important role in military communications. Radar systems employ computers to process data and display images. Computerized control systems provide much more information about range, height etc. of the target. Today, aircrafts employ computers for their controls and instrumentation. Fighter aircrafts are equipped with computers for their quick activity. The computers also allow the pilot to interact with it.

7. Social Media Communication

Social media is a group of online communication channels for the purpose of group based input that can be done through the social networking, communication and content sharing. Social media essentially helps to share the views of one to the public through the social networking platform. Various networking sites and popular media channels are Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Instagram, Youtube, Blogs and so on.

Examples of social media:

Facebook is a popular free social networking website that enables registered clients to make profiles, upload photographs and video, send messages and stay in contact with friends, family and associates.

Twitter is a free micro blogging service that enables registered individuals to show short texts called tweets. Twitter users can spread tweets and follow other users’ tweets by utilizing numerous platforms and devices.

LinkedIn is a social networking site planned particularly for the business group. The objective of the website is to enable registered followers to establish and document networks of the general population they know and trust professionally.

Youtube helps to upload the user’s video and thereby one can share their experiences through video content. People will follow the channel by subscribing it, so that they can stay updated with the latest videos of the channel.

Tuesday, 11 August 2020

Role of Computers in Publishing

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Role of Computers in Publishing

Computer is the most powerful tool man has ever invented. It has made a great impact on every activity of mankind and plays an important role in daily functioning of all industrialized societies. Earlier, computers were used for scientific and engineering computations. But now about 75% of work done by computers is of non computational nature. Now-a-days they are used for office work, games, preparation of manuscripts, automatic controls in factories, weather forecasting, ticket issue and reservation in railways and other places, control of military equipment; to store, display, send and receive information; to make drawings, graphs and pictures; to control missiles and to control airplanes; to diagnose diseases and prescribe medicines, to perform clinical tests; to maintain and sort records of clients; to teach students; to perform accounting and financial work, to tabulate results; to prepare horoscopes, to select life partner; to supervise and watch areas; help the police in crime investigation: to control robots and so on. The Role of Computers in Publishing is explained below.

Computer Application in Publishing

Today, conventional letter composition in printing presses for book publishing has become obsolete. The manuscripts of books are now prepared using computers. These computers contain word processing programs. Text of the manuscript is entered into a computer. The entered text is displayed on the monitor. The text is edited and is stored on a floppy disk. Usually, laser printers are connected to the computer to produce high quality print. Prints of the text are taken out, First proof reading is done in the press. The stored text is retrieved and displayed on the screen. The programmer makes corrections as pointed out by the proof reader. Again prints of corrected text are taken out. Finally, these prints are sent to the author of the book for final proof reading. Errors pointed out by the author are corrected again. Then final prints are taken out. Space is left for pasting illustrations, sketches, diagrams etc. Drawing made in black ink is pasted on the pages of the text. For mass printing, a negative of the document is produced and it is used to prepare plates for offset printing. Now-a-days, theses, project reports etc. are also produced using word processing package. In case of theses, project reports etc., 4-6 copies are taken out using laser printers. Alternatively, only one copy of the text is printed out using laser printer and rest of the copies are produced by photocopying.

Desktop Publishing System

Desktop publishing, once used only by the professionals, is currently used by everyone because of the availability of several open source programs and other online software that helps the user to create the product with just a few clicks. You just need only the photos, icons, logos, banners, text and illustrations to complete the task. If you want to create the books, invitation cards, advertisement banners or greeting cards, Desktop publishing helps to do it simply. Also you can create several digital products like newsletters, junk mails and online digital magazines easily, since there available so many templates with detailed guides in the web.

A desktop publishing package is extra dominant than word processor package. The system includes computer and a variety of peripherals with dominant software that can make page layouts whole with pictures and text printed in a range of attractive ways. Such pages are used in manuals, bulletins, newsletters etc. They are more attractive and efficient compared to the simple clear print outputs of word processors. It contains an art library containing over thousand pictures which can be used in a document. The system contains an output device which can produce text and pictures. Digitizers or scanners are used to convert art, photo and text images into suitable signals to be fed into the processors. The screen used is a high resolution screen. Though the package may run on a PC, powerful computers are generally used. Phototypesetting gives better output than dot-matrix or laser printers.

The desktop publishing package can accept the text which has already been prepared by word processing packages and stored in a file. Examples of desktop publishing packages (DTPs) are Ventura, Page Maker, Quark Xpress, MS-Publisher, Scribus etc.

The desktop publishing package includes a program called page layout (or page make up or page composition) program which permits operators to format pages of the text and merge text and pictures on display screen. It helps the operator to arrange the text around the picture as he likes. He can add pictures, change position of the picture, alter the style and size of headlines, design of borders etc.

When the design is completed the text is entered, the output of the desktop publishing package, i.e., text and images are sent to graphics printer for multiple copies. Alternatively photo-typesetting equipment can be used for output, or a negative can be prepared. The negative is sent to printing firms for mass production.

Monday, 10 August 2020

Role of Computers in Education

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Role of Computers in Education

Computers have revolutionized in education sector too. The concept of the conventional classrooms is changing. The old classroom has given way to a modern classroom in which computers are used for enhancing ideas and giving a more real-life and visually oriented education. An important factor in using computers is the intellectual advantage resulting from their use in the conventional classroom everything was taught on the black board. Only verbal explanation was possible. This method had a lot of limitations in conveying ideas. CBT is an acronym for Computer Based Training. This uses multimedia and classroom projectors containing training material beneficial for students and teachers on various subjects.

With the Internet revolution, education has also moved on the World Web platform. Many universities are using the web for distance education and distribution of study materials and syllabi to students. Following are some of the key advantages in using computers in education.

Interactive classroom

Conduct online classes

Can do science projects using software

Can search and study about interesting subjects from Internet


Softwares are available that demonstrate topics with solved examples in science and Mathematics

Education is now considered as a continuous learning process. Age is not a criterion in modern education. As knowledge can become obsolete after a few years, education must focus on continuous learning. In educational institutions computers are used as teaching aids, information resource and computing and research tool.

When computer is utilized as an education aid it is called as 'Computer-Assisted Instruction' (CAI). The subject material is displayed on the Monitor. The computer also asks questions to test the students. When a student gives correct answer, the computer gives some comments to indicate that the answer is correct. If the answer is not correct, the computer gives some error signal. The CAI programs can be prepared in a variety of modes, such as tutorial, discovery, problem solving, modeling, and drill and practice mode.

In tutorial mode, the computer presents new ideas followed by test questions. In discovery mode, the computer presents information and asks students to draw conclusions. In problem solving mode, computer allows students to apply some concepts in solving a problem. In modeling mode, a process or a system is presented mathematically to make its analysis. Students are allowed to change variables to see their effects. In drill and practice mode, it is assumed that the skill in question is known but repetition is essential to have command over the subject. The interactive feature of the computer makes computer-aided teaching attractive. Computers can repeat the presentation of the material as many times as desired. This helps students make certain concepts clearer if they are not clear in earlier attempts.

Other attractive features of computers are their multimedia capabilities - particularly colour graphics ability. Pictures can move, rotate, computer can speak; all these features attract students. Graphics help students to see three-dimensional figures and view from different angles. Figures can be enlarged or reduced.

Computers are widely used for computation, design and research. The word processing package is used for preparing text, typing thesis, office and administrative work, preparation of test questions etc. Data processing capability of computers are used by students, teachers and research scholars to analyze, manipulate and process data. Information stored in databases serves as a learning resource for students. Question banks may be prepared and stored in the computer.

Education is now combined with entertainment and is often called ‘Edutainment’. Edutainment is broadly defined as software, electronic books and interactive games which have an educational component. This new form of education through computers is more effective than the conventional class room learning. The student can decide when and where he or she wants to listen or participate. Students both residential and non-residential can attend lectures broadcast to their homes or work places and get reference materials from distant locations using computers. Local and wide area networks will enable universities to integrate many aspects of education. Computers have revolutionized the teaching profession. Teachers use computers to record marks, calculate averages, record attendance and access the progression of student in online programs and assessments.

Computers in Examinations

Computers are widely used for processing examination results. It is also used by Universities to set question papers for different subjects from a question bank stored in the database of computers. Questions can be selected at random for different subjects. After evaluation, the marks are also entered into the database of students registered. The computer can decide classes, distinctions, ranks etc. of the students and prepare and print the mark lists.

Computers are also widely used in competitive examinations, entrance examinations etc. which use objective type questions with limited number of choices of answers for each question. Special types of answer sheets are used. It contains question number followed by a number of bubbles representing the choice of answers. A candidate has to shade a bubble of his choice. Optical mark readers are used to read the answers represented by shaded bubbles and the data are first stored in the computer. Data are then processed by a computer program to prepare the rank list. The whole process of evaluation takes only a few hours though thousands of candidates’ answers are to be evaluated.

Sunday, 9 August 2020

Role of Computers in Business

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Role of Computers in Business

The main aim of businesses is the look for ways to raise the profit and also for market reach. The development of technology will further boost the businesses to achieve various goals. Technology can be further utilized for their profits and market reach. People can promote their products by using the latest technologies with the help of computer. The growth of money transactions from the ancient barter system to paper currencies to plastic money (debit, credit cards) played a major role in the history of business. This transformation has improved the ease of both the buyer and the seller. Electronic commerce or e-commerce has been the consequence of search of more proficient ways of doing business. Mostly it is buying and selling by means of electronic communications. Today, electronic commerce dominated as one among the major business field in the world. Examples of gigantic companies doing online businesses are Amazon, Ebay, Flipkart and so on.

Take a look at the application of computers that helps the business organizations. It allows an organization to manage the information and communication resources with all its branches, including staffs, clients, bankers, government offices, advertisement agencies and the public. When a firm does business electronically, they can do the business from anyplace, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Thus from small shops to international companies and corporations of any industrial sector are doing their business with fully integrated IT organizational structure.

The two fundamental business computing systems are office automation and Management Information Systems.

1. Office Automation:

Office automation is defined as using computer and communications technology to help people better use and manage information. People who use office automation are often called knowledge workers - senior executives, managers, supervisors, analysts, engineers and other white-collar office workers. In most offices, information (often in paper form) is the end product and is essential for conducting the company's business. Office automation systems keep track of the information originating in various operations throughout the company, such as order processing, accounting, inventory and manufacturing. Office automation provides knowledge workers with information - producing systems to collect, analyse, plan, and control information about the many facets of the business, using text, voice, graphics and video display technology.

There are five primary technologies used in organizing information in office automation.

Text, may be written information  

Data, may be described in numbers or further non-text forms

Graphics, may be images, sketch, charts or photos

Audio, may be telephone conversations, voice mail or other voice recognition methods

Video, may be slideshow images, video recordings or teleconferencing

In the past these kind of information were created using diverse technologies. Data, such as sales reports, were provided by the central computer. Charts and graphs were either hand drawn or created using 35mm slide photography and videotapes were used for training. Audio was restricted to the phone or tape recording. It was not possible to combine these various forms of information.

It was the computer that made their combination possible. What the computer produces is called an electronic document, which is a self-contained work. It may be a simple memo printed on paper or transmitted via electronic mail. Or it may be a more complex document, with graphics or even video annotated with comments. Such application software is also called as 'Groupware’. It allows networked PCs and work stations share information and electronic documents.

Office automation systems are comprised of many distinct sub systems: text management systems, business analysis systems, document management systems and network and communications systems.

2. Business Analysis Systems:

It allows managers to understand the business environment and take effective decisions. Spreadsheets are often used for analyzing cost and benefits and for creating budgets.

Another software called the Decision Support System (DSS) helps managers to extract information from the various management information system data bases, analyze it and then formulate a decision strategy for business planning. An 'expert system' is a program that can provide expert advice to the user. An 'executive support system' is an information system that consolidates and summarizes ongoing transactions within the organization.

3. Document Management System:

It helps in filing, tracking and managing documents.

4. Network and Communication Management System:

It includes telephone, electronic mail, voice messaging systems, teleconferencing and fax machines. They can communicate in real time via telephone or computer controlled PBX telephone systems to record a digital message and leave it in the recipient's mail box.

5. Text management systems

It is a computer system designed to work with the written or typewritten word. It includes typewriters, word processing systems, PCs with word processing, desktop publishing and text editing systems. These are used for tasks like writing memos, notes, letters and other short documents, printing envelopes and labels, preparing pre-printed forms such as invoices, composing complex documents such as proposals and reports, retrieving and editing documents such as contracts, creating display documents like newsletters etc.

6. Management Information System

MIS (Management Information System) is a computerized database of financial information which is organized and programmed and are used today in all businesses. Some of the benefits of integrating computer systems with organizational structure are:

Grow business functions to world class

Access to the complete world’s finest of class, expertise, knowledge and resources

Overcome the time and distance limits

Make use of technology for enhanced management information

Increased profits