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Thursday, 16 April 2020

Scientific Facts about Biochemistry


Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms.

Biochemists focus heavily on the role, function and structure of biomolecules.

The study of the chemistry behind biological processes and the synthesis of biologically active molecules are examples of biochemistry.

The four main classes of molecules in biochemistry are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Many biological molecules are polymers.

Facts about Carbohydrates

Compounds of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen (H : O - 2 : 1) are called carbohydrates.
eg: sucrose, glucose, cellulose

Carbohydrates are divided into Mono saccharide, Di saccharide, Oligo saccharide and Poly saccharide.

Monosaccharide consists of Simple carbohydrates. Eg: Glucose, fructose.
Disaccharide consists of two monosaccharide units. Eg: Sucrose, lactose.
Oligosaccharide consists of Three to six monosaccharide units. Eg: Raftinose.
Polysaccharide consists of Large number of monosaccharide units. Eg: Cellulose, Glycogen.

Monosaccharides are simple carbohydrates.

Some of the examples of monosaccharides are glucose (C6H12O6), fructose (C6H12O6), and deoxyribose (C5H10O4).

The sweetest among the sugar is Fructose.

Fructose is also called fruit sugar.

Honey is a mixture of equal amounts of glucose and fructose with 20% water.

First artificial sugar is sacharin.

Sugar found in sugarcane and sugarbeet is cane sugar or sucrose.

Sugar present in grapes is glucose.

Sugar found in milk is lactose.

Cellulose is made by plants and is an important structural component of their cell walls. Humans can neither manufacture nor digest it.

Cellulose is the main constituent of most natural fibres.

A vital purpose of cellulose is in the fabrication of synthetic silk or rayon.

The function of carbohydrates includes energy storage and providing structure.

Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars.

The molecule, consisting of two monosaccharides, is called a disaccharide.

The most well-known disaccharide is sucrose.

Another important disaccharide is lactose.

When a few (around three to six) monosaccharides are joined together, it is called an oligosaccharide (oligo- meaning "few").

Raffinose is a oligosaccharide.

Many monosaccharides joined together make a polysaccharide.

Two of the most common polysaccharides are cellulose and glycogen, both consisting of repeating glucose monomers.

Glycogen, on the other hand, is an animal carbohydrate; humans and other animals use it as a form of energy storage.

Glucose is the major energy source in most life forms.

Facts about Lipids

Lipids are oily, fatty or waxy substances present in living organisms.

Lipids are typically prepared from one molecule of glycerol mixed with other molecules.

Lipids, especially phospholipids, are also used in various pharmaceutical products.

The term lipid comprises a diverse range of molecules relatively water-insoluble or nonpolar compounds of biological origin, including waxes, fatty acids.

In triglycerides, there is one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids.

Fatty acids are considered the monomer, and may be saturated (no double bonds in the carbon chain) or unsaturated (one or more double bonds in the carbon chain).

Bee's wax is an example of lipid.

Facts about Proteins

Protein is made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.

Proteins are very large molecules made from monomers called amino acids. There are 20 standard amino acids.

When amino acids merged, they form a special bond namely peptide bond in the course of dehydration synthesis, and turn into a polypeptide, or protein.

Antibodies are proteins that put together to one specific type of molecule.

The most important proteins are the enzymes.

Protein present in hair, skin and nails is keratin.

Protein present in silk is fibroin.

Facts about Nucleic Acids

A nucleic acid can be reffered as a complex with high molecular mass biochemical macromolecule consisted of nucleotide chains that pass on genetic information.

Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and viruses.

The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribo nucleic acid (DNA) and ribo nucleic acid (RNA). Their monomers are called nucleotides.

The examples of nucleotides are adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine and thymine. Adenine combines with thymine and uracil; Thymine only combines with adenine; and cytosine and guanine can combine with each other.

Facts about Drugs

Drugs are divided into Analgesics, Antipyretics and Tranquilizers.

Analgesics is Relieving pain. Eg:  Aspirin (Wonder drug and Acetyl salicylic acid).
Antipyretics bring down body temperature. Eg: Paracetamol, Aspirin.
Tranquilizers is used for mental disorderness. Eg: Secanal, Barbituric acid.

Aspirin is called wonder drug.

Aspirin is chemically acetyl salicylic acid.

Analgesics are the drugs used for relieving pain. eg: Aspirin

Antipyretics are the chemicals used to bring down body temperature. eg: Paracetamol, Aspirin

Disinfectants: Chemical used to kill microorganisms. eg: Phenol, DDT, BHC.

Antibiotics: Chemicals extracted from microorganisms (fungi, mold, bacteria) and can be used to destroy some other micro-organisms. eg: Streptomycin, Penicillin, Chloramphenicol.

Antiseptics: Chemicals that can be applied to living tissues to destroy micro-organisms. eg: Dettol

Tranquilizers are chemicals used as medicine for mental disorderness.

Barbituric acid and its salts are used as tranquilizers.

Secanal is also a tranquilizer.

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