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Tuesday, 7 April 2020

Facts about Solutions and Water

Facts about Solutions

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, whose composition can be varied within certain limits.

The substances forming a solution are called components.

Solute and solvent are the components of a solution.

A solvent is the dissolving substance and a solute is the dissolved substance

eg: When salt is dissolved in water the salt is the solute and water is the solvent.

The component present in larger quantity is called the solvent and the other one, the solute.

Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in the fixed amount of solvent.

A solution containing maximum amount of solute at a given temperature and pressure is called saturated solution.

A solution containing less than maximum quantity of solute in a solvent is called unsaturated solution.

Normality is the number of gram equivalents of solute present in one litre of the solution.

Molality is the number of moles of the solute that are present in 1 kg of the solvent.

Molarity is the number of moles of solute present in litre of the solution.

The process of crystals depositing from a solution is called crystallization.

The finer the particles, the more are the solubility.

The more the shaking or agitation, the more is the solubility.

The higher the temperature, the greater is its solubility.

Milk, blood, creams are emulsion type colloidal solutions.

Isotonic solutions are solutions which have same osmotic pressure.

Solution (Homogeneous mixture of two or more substance) – Solute and Solvent.

Solute -> Dissolved substance -> Smaller component -> In salt solution, solute is salt
Solvent -> Dissolving substance -> Larger component -> Water is solvent in salt solution

Facts about Water

Water is known as the ‘Universal Solvent’ because it is a remarkable solvent and dissolves many susbtances forming aqueous solutions.

Water exists in all three states of matter.

Water has the greatest density at 4°C. This behaviour of water permits fishes to survive in ponds through severe winters.

Oxide of deuterium is called heavy water.

Water is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.

The pleasant taste of good drinking water is due to dissolved air and CO2 and mineral water.

Water acts both as an acid and a base.

Hard water does not produce lather with soap readily.

Soft water produces lather with soap readily.

Temporary hardness of water is due to the presence of bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium. It can be removed by boiling the water.

Permanent hardness of water is due to the presence of sulphates and chlorides of calcium and magnesium. It can be removed by adding washing soda or by ion exchange method.

Water (H2O) Properties

1. Universal Solvent
2. Exist in three states (Ice, water, steam)
3. Heavy water -Deuterium oxide
4. Maximum density at 4°C
5. Water is divided into Soft water and Hard water
6. Soft water -> Produce lather with soap readily
7. Hard water -> Does not produce lather with soap readily -> Temporary hardness & Permanent hardness
8. Temporary hardness -> Presence of bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium
9. Permanent hardness -> Sulphates and chlorides of calcium and magnesium

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