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Tuesday, 14 April 2020

Facts about Fuels


FACTS ABOUT FUELS

A substance that can supply heat energy either alone or by reacting with another substance is known as fuel.

 There are three types of Fossil Fuels. They are Oil, Gas and Coal. Fossil Fuels are non-renewable.

Heat produced by fuel is measured in calorie.

 LPG means liquefied petroleum gas, major component present in, it is butane.

Petroleum is a dark viscous liquid which occurs at various depths under the crust of the earth.

Petroleum is commonly called liquid gold.

Petrol and diesel are two important fractions of crude oil.

Crude petroleum is converted into petrol through a process called fractional distillation.

Petrol is also known as gasoline.

The rating of fuel is done on the basis of octane number (petrol) and cetane number (diesel).

Leakage of LPG can be identified by mixing it with ethyl mercaptan.

Tetraethyl lead (TEL), Tetramethyl lead (TML) are known as antiknock compounds.

Now TML is used instead of TEL. Antiknock compounds improve the quality of the fuel.

Water gas is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, it is used as industrial fuel.

Producer gas is a mixture of nitrogen and carbonmonoxide.

In compressed natural gas (CNG), major component is methane.

Liquid hydrogen has highest calorific value.

CNG is increasingly being used as fuel for running buses in metropolitan cities, it is highly knock resistant. Antiknock addictives are not used in this fuel so it reduces the air pollution.

Both LPG & CNG contain traces of propane.

Biogas contains methane.

Gobergas is used as an alternative fuel to LPG.

Coal gas is a mixture of hydrogen (40%), methane (35%), carbonmonoxide (6%), nitrogen (6%), carbondioxide (1%), ethene (3%) and acetylene (2%).

Carbon content in coal varies with type of coal. Anthracite contains 90% carbon. Bituminous coal contains 70% carbon. Lignite contains 40% carbon. Peal contains 10 to 15% carbon.

Anthracite is the purest form of mineral coal.

Methane is also known as marsh gas or damp fire.

Natural gas consists mainly of methane (84%), ethane (8%), propane (4%) and butane (2%) together with small amount of other hydro-carbons (2%).

Wood heated in an enclosed container will produce charcoal. This process is called destructive distillation of wood.

Charcoal is most reactive form of carbon because of large surface area.

Fuels à Biogas (Methane) à Water gas (Carbonmonoxide, hydrogen) àProducer gas (Carbonmonoxide, nitrogen) à LPG (Butane) à CNG (Methane) àCoal gas (Hydrogen, methane, carbonmonoxide etc)

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