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Saturday, 4 April 2020

Facts about Compounds in Chemistry

Facts about Compounds

Compound is a pure substance that is composed of two or more elements chemically combined in definite and constant proportions.

The separation of a compound into its elements by chemical means is called analysis.

The formation of a compound by the union of elements is called synthesis.

The common refrigerants are Ammonia and Freon- 12

Non stick kitchen vessels are coated with Teflon.

Photographic films are coated with Silver bromide.

Artificial rain is done by using Silver iodide.

Phosphene (PH3) has the smell of rotten fish.

Hydrogen sulphide gas has the smell of rotten egg.

Bleaching powder is chemically calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2).

Egg shell, marble, limestone etc contain Calcium carbonate.

Coral reefs are made of calcium carbonate.

Green house effect is created by carbondioxide, methane, water vapour etc.

Dry ice is solid carbondioxide.

Zinc phosphide and Arsenic sulphide are used as rat poison (rodenticide)

What is Acid rain ?

Ans: The term Acid rain was coined by Robert Angus Smith. It is caused by the pollution of environment due to nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are changed in the atmosphere into sulpuric acid and nitric acid.

Laughing gas is Nitrous oxide.

Benzyl chloride is used as tear gas.

Carborundum is Silicon Carbide.

Potassium Cyanide is used to reduce the melting point of gold.

Sodium Citrate is used as a preservative for human blood.

Water glass is sodium silicate.

Sodium peroxide is used as air purifier in submarines.

Paper is chemically cellulose.

The most abundant carbohydrate (organic com-pound) present in nature is cellulose.

Rust is chemically hydrated ferric oxide. (Fe2O3.H2O).

Freezing mixture contains calcium chloride.

The gas responsible for Bhopal gas tragedy was methyl iso cyanate (MIC).

Copper oxy chloride is used as fungicide in pepper plants.

Oxides are binary compounds of oxygen and metals or non metals.

Acidic oxides show the properties of acids.
eg: Carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, phosphorus pentoxide etc.

Basic oxides are generally metallic oxides. 
eg: Calcium oxide, sodium peroxide, magnesium oxide, etc.

Neutral oxides are neither acidic nor basic. 
eg: 1. Nitrous oxide 2. Carbon monoxide (CO)

Amphoteric oxides show both the properties of acids and bases.
eg: Aluminium oxide, zinc oxide, water

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) contains the major component calcium oxide (Lime)

White paints are made by using titanium dioxide.

The whitest compound ever known is titanium dioxide.

Most abundant compound present in animals -Water.

Nitrous oxide is used as an anesthetic.

Rocket propellant contains fuel and oxidiser.

Impure sodium carbonate obtained in the industrial process is called black ash.

Lead chromate is used as pigments called chrome yellow.

Ferromagnetic powder is coated in tape recorders.

Carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguishers.

Cryolite is a double fluoride of aluminium and sodium.

Silver halides are used in photographic plates because they are readily reduced by light.

The aluminium compound used in fire extinguishers is alum.

Calcium compound used in freezing mixture is calcium chloride.

The chemical used as a 'fixer' in photography is sodium thiosulphate. It is also known as hypo.

Diffusion of light in the atmosphere takes place due to water vapour.

Ferrous sulphate crystals are known as 'Green vitriol'.

The main constituents of pearl are calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.

Ruby, sapphire, emery or corundum is aluminium oxide ( Al203).

Smelling salt is ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3.

Philosopher's wool is zinc oxide.

Nitrous oxide gas, N2O is used in the manufacture of ice - cream.

Naturally occurring aluminium silicate is mica. Mica is a bad conductor of electricity and a good conductor of heat.

Ice has lower density than water. Why?

Due to hydrogen bonding in the solid state an open cage like structure is formed as a result of which mass per unit volume decreases and hence the density.

Rock cotton is asbestos.

Methyl bromide is used as pesticide.

HBFCs ie. hydrobromofluorocarbons used in fire entinguishers.

Sodium nitrate is used as fertilizer, it is also known as Chile salt petre.

Potassium ferrocyanide is used in the manufacture of prussian blue.

Most ionic compound is Cesium chloride.

Calcium phosphate is found in the bones of animals.

Vegetable gold is Saffron.

Baking powder is a mixture of tartaric acid and baking soda.

A mixture of Titanium tetrachloride and Tri-ethyl aluminium is known as Zeigler - Natta catalyst.

Mixture of Copper sulphate and calcium hydroxide is known as bordeaux mixture. it is used as a fungicide.

Gun powder is a mixture of sulphur, charcoal and nitre.

Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

It is an intermediate gaseous product in the decaying process of dead organic matter.

Industrially, it is manufactured through Haber's Process.

It is a colourless gas with a strong pungent smell and slightly alkaline taste.

It is lighter than air.

Highly soluble in water

It is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, nitric acid and sodium carbonate.

Nylon, rayon, plastics, dyes, and explosives are all made from ammonia.

Ammonia can be liquefied easily and liquid ammonia is highly volatile.

Ammonia emulsifies fats and grease so that they can be removed without leaving any residue. Thus, it acts as a cleaning agent.

Compounds and its uses

1. Silver Iodide –> For artificial rain
2. Formaldehyde –> Preservation of dead body
3. Sodium Citrate –> An anti coagulant in Blood bank
4. Sodium Benzoate –> For the preservation of grains and food
5. Silver Bromide –> For the manufacturing of photo films
6. Freon –> Use in refrigerator as a coolant
7. Sodium Peroxide –> Air purifier in sub marines
8. Carbon dioxide –> Fire extinguisher

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