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Wednesday, 8 April 2020

Facts about Chemistry in Daily Life

FACTS ABOUT CHEMISTRY IN DAILY LIFE


Facts about Polymers

Complex molecules formed by the addition of simple molecules are called polymers.

Monomers are relatively small micromolecules that are linked together to create large macro-molecules, which are known as polymers.

Cellulose and silk are natural polymers and nylon, rayon, teflon, orlon, polyester etc. are manmade polymers or synthetic polymers,

Plastics are synthetic polymers which can be easily moulded or set into a desired shape.

Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics are two types of plastics.

Polythene, nylon etc. are examples for thermoplastics and polyester, bakelite etc. are examples for thermosetting plastics.

Rayon is known as artificial silk and is used in carpets, tyre code, surgical dressings, fabrics etc.

Caprolactum [C6H11NO] is produced from cyclohexane.

First artificial plastic is Bakelite

Bakelite is made from phenol and formaldehyde.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) are polymers of vinylchloride and vinyl acetate respectively.

Nylon-66, Nylon-6 are synthetic fibres belonging to polyamide.

What is PVC?

Ans: PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride.) is a thermoplastic, much stronger than polyethylene. It is used for the manufacture of electrical insulators, water proof cloth etc.

Nylon-66 is prepared from hexa methylene diamine and adipic acid.

Non stick kitchenware are coated with teflon and potassium hydrogen tartarate. It is anti-corrosive.

Teflon is a polymer named Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

Facts about Rubber

Rubber is a polymer of isoprene.

Rubber is a naturally available elastic polymer.

Ordinary rubber is a thermoplastic substance.

Tyres filled with air are called pneumatic.

First artificial rubber Neoprene

Buna rubber, SBIt, Neoprene rubber, Butyl rubber & Thiokol are examples of synthetic rubber.

Synthetic rubber

Property

Uses

Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR)
High frictional force, not easily broken, resists ozone, gets easily oxidised
Tyres, foot wears
Neoprene Rubber
Not easily flammable, does not easily reacts with oils and solvents, stable at high temperature
Cable insulation, conveyor belt in coal mines, making hose
Thiokol
High elasticity, hardness, doesn't dissolve in organic solvents.
Tanks for storing solvents, making seal,' making hoses

Vulcanisation: The process of heating rubber with sulphur for the betterment of its properties, is called vulcanisation. Vulcanisation enhances the following properties of rubber: tensile strength, hardness, elasticity, ability to withstand heat changes. These properties can be varied by changing the quantity of sulphur, temperature and time taken for vulcanisation.

Facts about Cement

Cement is a complex mixture of aluminates and silicates of calcium

In 1824, a British Engineer, Joseph Aspidin ' made a binding material by mixing lime and silica and firstly it was named as 'portland cement'.

The setting of cement is due to the hydration of calcium silicates and calcium aluminates.

The mixture of cement, silica and water is called cement mortar.

Concrete is reinforced by embedding steel in cement.

A suitable site of a cement plant requires proximity to limestone and gypsum.

How is cement manufactured ?

Ans: The raw materials (calcium carbonate, silica, alumina and iron ore) are ground into a fine powder and mixed in the fixed proportion. This is heated in a furnace at a high temperature (1500°C). Clinkers, which is a complex mixture of calcium silicate and calcium aluminate is formed. Gypsum is added to clinker and the ' mixture is powdered to make cement.

Facts about Soaps & Detergents

Sodium or potassium salts of stearic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid are called soap.

Sodium hydroxide is utilised in washing soap and potassium hydroxide in toilet soap.

The process of adding NaCl, to the solution for the separation of soap from glycerol is called `Salting out'.

Synthetic detergents are a mixture of sodium salts of aromatic and aliphatic sulphonic acids.

Facts about Glasses

Glass is a super cooled liquid.

The major ingredients of glass are sand, lime and soda ash.

Borax increases the hardness and refractory character of glass.

Safety glass (manufactured by pasting a weight-less plastic sheet in between two glass plates) is used in manufacture of bullet proof screens, wind shields etc.

Different colours can be given to glass using different metallic oxides or ions:

1. Metal compound/ion and Colour
2. Ferric ion - Yellow
3. Ferrous or Chromium - Green
4. Cobalt ion - Blue 
5. Manganese dioxide - Purple 
6. Nickel salt - Red
7. Cadmium sulphide - Lemon yellow
8. Uranium oxide - Greenish yellow
9. Cryolite/Calcium phosphate - Opaque milk white colour

Different Types of Glasses and Uses

Glasses

Components

Use

Soda lime glass (soft glass/ silica glass)
Silica, Sodium carbonate, Calcium carbonate
Window doors, mirror, bulbs, bottles, jar
Hard glass (heat resistant glass)
Silica, Potassium carbonate, Calcium carbonate
Laboratory apparatus, factory and kitchen wares
Boro silicate glass
Boric oxide, Aluminium oxide, Silica, Sodium oxide
Laboratory apparatus, factory and kitchen wares
Flint glass (optical glass/ lead glass)
Silica, Potassium carbonate, Lead oxide
Lenses, prisms
Fibre glass
Silica, Sodium carbonate, Calcium carbonate
Industry insulator, helmets, furniture

Facts about Explosives

TNT is trinitrotoluene. It is highly explosive substance. It is manufactured by the action of concentrated nitric acid on toluene.

Explosive power is measured in terms of TNT.

RDX - Research and Development Explosive is a highly explosive substance.

PETN- Penta erythritol tetra nitrate is more lethal and deadly explosive than RDX.

Dynamite was discovered by Alfred Nobel in 1863. It is prepared by absorption of raw dust with nitroglycerine or sodium nitrate.

Picric acid, EDNA, HMX etc. are powerful explosives.

Nitrocellulose, Gun cotton are used as explosives.

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