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Sunday, 26 April 2020

Chemical Processes in Chemistry

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Facts about Chemical Processes in Chemistry

Chromatography: The modern and most effective method to separate different components of a mixture.

Sublimation: The change of substance directly from solid state to vapour state. Camphor, iodine etc. undergoes sublimation.

Electro Plating: The deposition of the metal on another by electric current .

Fermentation: The method used to obtain alcohol from molasses is called fermentation.

Bessemer Process: Removal of impurities from molten metal by blowing air through the molten charge in a Bessemer converter. It is used to remove carbon and phosphorus from steel; sulphur and iron from copper.

Bosch Process: Production of hydrogen by the catalytic reduction of steam with carbon monoxide at 500°C.

Haber Process: The process in which ammonia is prepared by combining nitrogen and hydrogen.

Contact Process: Preparation of sulphuric acid.

Aluminothermic Process: Reduction of iron oxide to iron using aluminium.

Cyanide Process: It is used for the extraction of silver and gold.

Ostwald Process: Preparation of nitric acid.

Hall Heroult Process: It is used to prepare aluminium by electrolysis in which alumina (aluminium oxide) is dissolved in cryolite (sodium aluminium fluoride) and electrolyzed.

Solvey process: Preparation of baking soda/ washing soda.

Mc-Arther Forrest Process : Extraction of gold.

What is Pasteurization?
Ans: It is the process by which milk is exposed to a high temperature from 62.8°C - 65.5°C for 30 minutes to destroy certain micro - organisms and to prevent or arrest fermentation.

Chemistry Sobriquets

  1. King of metals - Gold 
  2. King of poison - Arsenic
  3. Metal of the future - Titanium
  4. Rainbow metal - Irdium 
  5. Blue gold - Water
  6. Little silver - Platinum
  7. Quick silver - Mercury
  8. White gold - Platinum
  9. Chemical sun - Magnesium
  10. White tar - Naphthalene
  11. Mineral oil - Petroleum 
  12. Philosopher's wool - Zinc oxide
  13. Laughing gas - Nitrous oxide
  14. Royal liquid - Aquaregia
  15. Marsh gas - Methane
  16. Sun's son - Helium

Common Name and Chemical Name

  1. Rock Salt - Sodium chloride (NaCI)  
  2. Carborunclum - Silicon carbide (SiC) 
  3. Gypsum - Calcium sulphate (CaSO4.2H2O)
  4. Plaster of Paris - Calcium sulphate (CaSO4.½H2O) 
  5. Nitre - Potassium nitrate (KNO3)
  6. Red lead - Triplumbic tetroxide (Pb3O4)
  7. Common salt - Sodium chloride (NaCI)
  8. Hypo - Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3)
  9. Candy fluid - Potassium permanganate (KMnO4)
  10. Soda nitre - Sodium nitrate (NaNO3)
  11. Chalk - Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
  12. Spirit - Ethyl alcohol (C2H2OH)
  13. Caustic potash - Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
  14. Baking soda - Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)
  15. Soda water - Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
  16. Limestone - Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) 
  17. Gun power nitre - Potassium nitrate (KNO3)
  18. Lunar caustic - Silver nitrate (AgNO3)
  19. Slaked lime Calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2)
  20. Quick lime - Calcium oxide (CaO)
  21. Liquor ammonia - Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH)
  22. Potash alum - Potassium aluminium sulphate
  23. Blue vitriol - Copper sulphate (CuSO4)
  24. Washing soda - Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
  25. Caustic soda - Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
  26. Calomel - Mercurous chloride (Hg2Cl2)
  27. White vitriol - Zinc sulphate (ZnSO4)
  28. Sal ammoniac - Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl)
  29. Pearl ash - Potassium carbonate (K2CO3)
  30. Green vitriol - Ferrous/Iron sulphate (FeSO4)
  31. Glauber's salt - Sodium sulphate ( Na2SO4).10H2O
  32. Chloroform - Trichloro methane (CHCl3)
  33. Litharge - Lead monoxide (PbO)
  34. Bleaching powder - Calcium oxy chloride (CaOCl2)
  35. Epsom salt - Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4.7H2O)
  36. Aspirin - Acetyl salicylic acid
  37. Salt cake - Sodium sulphate (Na2SO4)
  38. Quartz - Silicon dioxide (SiO2)
  39. Calamine - Zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)

Saturday, 25 April 2020

Interesting Facts about Nuclear Chemistry

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Interesting Facts about Nuclear Chemistry

The branch of science which deals with the phenomenon of nuclei of atoms is known as nuclear chemistry.

The main cause of radioactive disintegration is the instability of the nucleus.

The phenomenon of spontaneous emission of active radiations from certain substances is called radioactivity and the substance emitting such radiations are called radioactive substances.

Radioactivity is classified into two types: natural radioactivity and artificial radioactivity.

If a substance emits radiations by itself, it is said to possess natural radioactivity.

If a substance does not possess radioactivity, but starts emitting radiation on exposure to rays from a natural radioactive substance, it is said to possess induced or artificial radioactivity.

Under the influence of electric and magnetic field, the radioactive rays split into three kinds. They are alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) rays.

Properties of Alpha rays:

1) Consists of positively charged particles.
2) It is represented by 2He4 (Helium nucleus)
3) Velocity of alpha particles is approximately 1/15th of that of light.
4) They can penetrate through thin metal foils.
5) They cause ionisation of gases
6) They can produce glow on a fluorescent screen.
7) They affect photographic plates.

Properties of Beta rays:

1) Consists of negatively charged particles.
2) Beta particles are nothing but electrons.
3) Velocity of beta particles ranges between 33 and 99% of that of light.
4) They have more penetrating power than alpha particles.
5) They cannot ionise gases as strongly as α-particles can.
6) They can produce glow on a fluorescent screen.
7) They affect photographic plates/films.

Properties of Gamma rays:

1) γ-rays are not deflected by magnetic or electric field.
2) They are not constituted of charged particles. γ-rays are a form of powerful electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength.
3) Velocity of gamma rays equals that of light.
4) They have much higher penetrating power than β rays.
5) They can cause ionisation of gases.
6) They produce glow on fluorescent screen.
7) They affect photographic plates.

Group displacement law:

"The emission of an α-particle by a component results in the creation of a new component which lies two positions to the left of the parent component and the emission of β particle results in the creation of a new component which lies one position to the right of parent component in the periodic table".

Decay constant (λ) may be defined as the fraction of the total number of radioactive atoms disintegrating in unit time.

Half life period (t½): The half life period of a radioactive element is defined as the time required for the decay of one half of its original amount
t½ =  0.6932/λ

Artificial transmutation: The conversion of a stable nucleus into another nucleus by the bombardment of particles like protons, neutrons etc is known as artificial transmutation.

Artificial transmutation was discovered by Rutherford.

Nuclear fission is defined as the process of splitting of a heavy nucleus into two or more lighter nuclei by bombardment with a suitable sub-atomic particle.

Nuclear fission was discovered by Otto Hahn and Strassmann.             

Natural radioactivity was discovered by Henri Becquerel.

Artificial radioactivity was discovered by Irene Curie & F. Juliot.

The principle of atomic bomb is the uncontrolled nuclear fission reaction.

Nuclear fusion may be defined as a process in which two or more lighter nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus.

Nuclear fusion occur only at very high temperatures. So these are called thermonuclear reactions.

The energy of sun is supposed to arise from nuclear fusion reaction.

The nuclear fusion reaction is the basis of the hydrogen bomb.

Simplest radioactive atom is Tritium (1H3).

Tritium is a beta emitter.

The daughter element of tritium is helium-3 (2He3).

Age of fossil can be found by radio carbon dating using carbon - 14.

Wine dating can be done by using tritium.

Rock-dating (Age of planet) can be calculated by Uranium dating by using U-238 and Ph - 206.

Radioactive Iodine (Iodine -131) is used for the treatment of hyper thyroidism.

Cobalt - 60 isotope is used for cancer treatment.

Deficit in blood circulation is identified by using phosphorus – 32.

Gold - 198 is used for the treatment of Leukemia.

Angiogram test is done by using sodium – 24.

Bone cancer can be diagnosed by using phosphorus - 32.

During beta emission isobars are produced.

Controlled fission reaction is done in nuclear reactor.

Five research reactor of India are Purnima, Zerlina. Dhruva, Cirus and Apsara at BARC.

 Important Power Stations in India are

1. Tarapur Atomic Power Station - Maharashtra
2. Rajasthan Atomic Power Station - Kota
3. Narora Atomic Power Station - Uttar Pradesh
4. Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research -Kalpakkam (Chennai)

World's first fast breeder reactor named KA-MINI - Kalpakam (Chennai). The Kalpakkam reactor, has successfully used the mixed uranium - plutonium carbide fuel.

Unit of radioactivity is Becquerel (Bq).

1 Bq = I disintegration per second
1 Curie = 3.7 x 1010 Bq
1 Curie = 3.7 x 1010 dis/sec
1 Rutherford = 106 dis/sec

Radioactive disintegration of uranium ultimately results in the formation of lead.

Strongest radioactive element is radium.

Gaseous radioactive element is radon.

 Is green house effect responsible for global warming?

Yes, the green house effect is responsible for global warming.
Green house effect is the phenomenon in which earth's atmosphere traps the heat (IR radiation) from the sun and prevents it from re-radiating into the outer space. The gases like methane, carbon-dioxide, carbon monoxide, chlorofluoro carbon etc causes green house effect. The enhanced green house effect, lead to the over warming of the earth. This extra warming is called global warming.

What is Radio carbon dating?

Radio carbon dating is the technique of determining the age of old carboneous materials using the radio activity of carbon-14 isotopes.

Sunday, 19 April 2020

Characteristic Lengths In Mesoscopic Systems

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Characteristic Lengths in Mesoscopic Systems

It deals with structures having size between macroscopic and microscopic objects usually varying from a few nanometers to 100nm. Electrons in such systems show their wave like properties and are depended on geometry of the sample. So electrons act as EM radiation in waveguides. It is convenient to classify such system based on their characteristic length as one object may show different properties with respect to the length considered.

Some most commonly used lengths are,

1. De Broglie Wavelength
2. Mean free path
3. Diffusion Length
4. Screening length
5. Localization length

1. De Broglie Wavelength in Nanoelectronics

For an electron of momentum P, there exist a wavelength given by,
λB = h/p = h/mv

The mass ‘M’ of an electron is probably considered as vaccum. Once they behave dynamically, their mass is considered as M* which is the effective mass.

The smaller the value of m*, easier will be to observe the size of quantum effect in given nanostructure.

The present lithographic technique makes it easier to construct semiconductor nanostructure with one or two dimension of the order of λB.

2. Mean Free Path in Nanoelectronics

Scattering of particle inside a solid occurs due to imperfection like impurity, lattices vibration defects. The distance covered by the electron between two inelastic collision is called the mean free path.

le = vτe
le – distance
v- speed
τe = Mean free time

3. Diffusion Length in Nanoelectronics

Electrons can move either in ballistic nature or diffusion nature of a particle move throughout the structure without scattering it is said to have ballistic nature.

Hot electrons transistor exhibits ballistic nature of electron transport.

Consider Diffusion length Le,where, Le very much greater than l.

Diffusion coefficient is represented by D.

Le = (Dτe)1/2

Diffusion is the process of movement of electrons from higher concentration region to lower concentration region. The electron transport is explained by Boltzmann diffusion. For ballistic region, Boltzmann transport region is not valid.

4. Screening Length in Nanoelectronics

In extrinsic semiconductor impurities are normally ionised and are considered a main factor for scattering. Due to screening of free carrier by charge of opposite polarity, we cannot consider electrical potential (v) by this impurity to vary with respect to 1/r.

Thus effect of impurity over distance is partially reduced. The variation of potential is dependent on the term, exp [-r/λs]

Where λs = [ϵKt/e2n]

e – electronic charge
ϵ - dielectric constant
n – background carrier concentration
k = Boltzmann constant
T – temperature

λs is in the range of 10 – 100 nm and is the indication of disturbance in the semiconductor. λs should be much smaller in metal than in semiconductor.

Φsp = r[e-r/λs/r]

As λs turns to infinity screening effects disappears. It can also be observed that di-electric function ϵ is distance dependent.

Coulombic length = 1/r
As λs = α
e = α = 1
Φsp = 1/r = coulombic length

5. Localisation Length in Nanoelectronics

For transport of electron in disordered material, there can be localised states. From which electron jumps between localised states to other localised state, until it reaches a bounded state.
In order to describe the hopping transport, we can consider the wave function,

Ψ = exp(-r/λloc)
λloc – localisation length.

We use the concept of localised state quantum hall effect.

Thursday, 16 April 2020

Scientific Facts about Biochemistry

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Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms.

Biochemists focus heavily on the role, function and structure of biomolecules.

The study of the chemistry behind biological processes and the synthesis of biologically active molecules are examples of biochemistry.

The four main classes of molecules in biochemistry are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Many biological molecules are polymers.

Facts about Carbohydrates

Compounds of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen (H : O - 2 : 1) are called carbohydrates.
eg: sucrose, glucose, cellulose

Carbohydrates are divided into Mono saccharide, Di saccharide, Oligo saccharide and Poly saccharide.

Monosaccharide consists of Simple carbohydrates. Eg: Glucose, fructose.
Disaccharide consists of two monosaccharide units. Eg: Sucrose, lactose.
Oligosaccharide consists of Three to six monosaccharide units. Eg: Raftinose.
Polysaccharide consists of Large number of monosaccharide units. Eg: Cellulose, Glycogen.

Monosaccharides are simple carbohydrates.

Some of the examples of monosaccharides are glucose (C6H12O6), fructose (C6H12O6), and deoxyribose (C5H10O4).

The sweetest among the sugar is Fructose.

Fructose is also called fruit sugar.

Honey is a mixture of equal amounts of glucose and fructose with 20% water.

First artificial sugar is sacharin.

Sugar found in sugarcane and sugarbeet is cane sugar or sucrose.

Sugar present in grapes is glucose.

Sugar found in milk is lactose.

Cellulose is made by plants and is an important structural component of their cell walls. Humans can neither manufacture nor digest it.

Cellulose is the main constituent of most natural fibres.

A vital purpose of cellulose is in the fabrication of synthetic silk or rayon.

The function of carbohydrates includes energy storage and providing structure.

Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars.

The molecule, consisting of two monosaccharides, is called a disaccharide.

The most well-known disaccharide is sucrose.

Another important disaccharide is lactose.

When a few (around three to six) monosaccharides are joined together, it is called an oligosaccharide (oligo- meaning "few").

Raffinose is a oligosaccharide.

Many monosaccharides joined together make a polysaccharide.

Two of the most common polysaccharides are cellulose and glycogen, both consisting of repeating glucose monomers.

Glycogen, on the other hand, is an animal carbohydrate; humans and other animals use it as a form of energy storage.

Glucose is the major energy source in most life forms.

Facts about Lipids

Lipids are oily, fatty or waxy substances present in living organisms.

Lipids are typically prepared from one molecule of glycerol mixed with other molecules.

Lipids, especially phospholipids, are also used in various pharmaceutical products.

The term lipid comprises a diverse range of molecules relatively water-insoluble or nonpolar compounds of biological origin, including waxes, fatty acids.

In triglycerides, there is one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids.

Fatty acids are considered the monomer, and may be saturated (no double bonds in the carbon chain) or unsaturated (one or more double bonds in the carbon chain).

Bee's wax is an example of lipid.

Facts about Proteins

Protein is made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.

Proteins are very large molecules made from monomers called amino acids. There are 20 standard amino acids.

When amino acids merged, they form a special bond namely peptide bond in the course of dehydration synthesis, and turn into a polypeptide, or protein.

Antibodies are proteins that put together to one specific type of molecule.

The most important proteins are the enzymes.

Protein present in hair, skin and nails is keratin.

Protein present in silk is fibroin.

Facts about Nucleic Acids

A nucleic acid can be reffered as a complex with high molecular mass biochemical macromolecule consisted of nucleotide chains that pass on genetic information.

Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and viruses.

The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribo nucleic acid (DNA) and ribo nucleic acid (RNA). Their monomers are called nucleotides.

The examples of nucleotides are adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine and thymine. Adenine combines with thymine and uracil; Thymine only combines with adenine; and cytosine and guanine can combine with each other.

Facts about Drugs

Drugs are divided into Analgesics, Antipyretics and Tranquilizers.

Analgesics is Relieving pain. Eg:  Aspirin (Wonder drug and Acetyl salicylic acid).
Antipyretics bring down body temperature. Eg: Paracetamol, Aspirin.
Tranquilizers is used for mental disorderness. Eg: Secanal, Barbituric acid.

Aspirin is called wonder drug.

Aspirin is chemically acetyl salicylic acid.

Analgesics are the drugs used for relieving pain. eg: Aspirin

Antipyretics are the chemicals used to bring down body temperature. eg: Paracetamol, Aspirin

Disinfectants: Chemical used to kill microorganisms. eg: Phenol, DDT, BHC.

Antibiotics: Chemicals extracted from microorganisms (fungi, mold, bacteria) and can be used to destroy some other micro-organisms. eg: Streptomycin, Penicillin, Chloramphenicol.

Antiseptics: Chemicals that can be applied to living tissues to destroy micro-organisms. eg: Dettol

Tranquilizers are chemicals used as medicine for mental disorderness.

Barbituric acid and its salts are used as tranquilizers.

Secanal is also a tranquilizer.

Tuesday, 14 April 2020

Facts about Fuels

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A substance that can supply heat energy either alone or by reacting with another substance is known as fuel.

 There are three types of Fossil Fuels. They are Oil, Gas and Coal. Fossil Fuels are non-renewable.

Heat produced by fuel is measured in calorie.

 LPG means liquefied petroleum gas, major component present in, it is butane.

Petroleum is a dark viscous liquid which occurs at various depths under the crust of the earth.

Petroleum is commonly called liquid gold.

Petrol and diesel are two important fractions of crude oil.

Crude petroleum is converted into petrol through a process called fractional distillation.

Petrol is also known as gasoline.

The rating of fuel is done on the basis of octane number (petrol) and cetane number (diesel).

Leakage of LPG can be identified by mixing it with ethyl mercaptan.

Tetraethyl lead (TEL), Tetramethyl lead (TML) are known as antiknock compounds.

Now TML is used instead of TEL. Antiknock compounds improve the quality of the fuel.

Water gas is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, it is used as industrial fuel.

Producer gas is a mixture of nitrogen and carbonmonoxide.

In compressed natural gas (CNG), major component is methane.

Liquid hydrogen has highest calorific value.

CNG is increasingly being used as fuel for running buses in metropolitan cities, it is highly knock resistant. Antiknock addictives are not used in this fuel so it reduces the air pollution.

Both LPG & CNG contain traces of propane.

Biogas contains methane.

Gobergas is used as an alternative fuel to LPG.

Coal gas is a mixture of hydrogen (40%), methane (35%), carbonmonoxide (6%), nitrogen (6%), carbondioxide (1%), ethene (3%) and acetylene (2%).

Carbon content in coal varies with type of coal. Anthracite contains 90% carbon. Bituminous coal contains 70% carbon. Lignite contains 40% carbon. Peal contains 10 to 15% carbon.

Anthracite is the purest form of mineral coal.

Methane is also known as marsh gas or damp fire.

Natural gas consists mainly of methane (84%), ethane (8%), propane (4%) and butane (2%) together with small amount of other hydro-carbons (2%).

Wood heated in an enclosed container will produce charcoal. This process is called destructive distillation of wood.

Charcoal is most reactive form of carbon because of large surface area.

Fuels à Biogas (Methane) à Water gas (Carbonmonoxide, hydrogen) àProducer gas (Carbonmonoxide, nitrogen) à LPG (Butane) à CNG (Methane) àCoal gas (Hydrogen, methane, carbonmonoxide etc)

Saturday, 11 April 2020

Facts about Organic Chemistry

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The branch of chemistry which deals with the study of hydrocarbons and their derivatives is called organic chemistry.

The simplest organic compounds made up only carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons.

The saturated hydrocarbons (carbon atoms linked together by single bonds) are comparatively stable to usual chemical reagents. They are known as paraffins (Alkanes).

Carbon atoms linked together by multiple bonds are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons (Alkenes, Alkynes).


Alkanes are represented by the general formula CnH2n+1.

Methane (CH4) is the first member of alkane series.
Methane is called wet-land gas.


Alkenes are represented by the general formula CnH2n.

They are unsaturated hydrocarbons and known as Olefins.

The simplest alkene is ethylene or etfiene (C2H4).


They are represented by CnH2n -2.

They are unsaturated hydrocarbons.

The simplest alkyne is acetylene (C2H2).


Alcohols are compound which contain one or more hydroxyl groups.

Methyl alcohol (CH3OH) is called wood spirit.

Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) is called grain alcohol. It is used in preparation of various beverages.

Ethyl alcohol containing 5 to 10% methyl alcohol is called methylated spirit (denatured spirit).

100% ethanol is called absolute alcohol.

Mixture of ethyl alcohol (95.87%) and water (4.13%) is known as rectified spirit.

Aldehydes & Ketones

Compounds in which oxygen atom is attached to a primary carbon atom, is known as an aldehyde. If the oxygen atom is attached to a secondary carbon, the compound is known as a ketone.

Aldehydes are known as alkanals and ketones are known as alkanones.

The general formula of aldehydes is RCHO while that of ketones is RCOR.

The chemical used for preserving biological specimens is formaldehyde.

Alkyl halides

The halogen atom attached to a saturated carbon atom are known as alkyl halides.
eg: Methyl chloride (chloromethane), ethyl chloride (chloroethane).

The halogen atom attached to an aromatic ring directly are known as aryl halides.

Carboxylic acids

Combination of carbonyl and hydroxyl group is a carbonylic function and has acidic properties.

Simple carboxylic acids are formic acid, acetic acid etc.

Nitro compounds

Nitro derivatives of corresponding alkanes are known as nitro alkanes.
eg: nitromethane, nitroethane etc.

What do you mean by BOD ?

Ans: Biological oxygen demand (BOO) is defined as the amount of dissolved oxygen required for the oxidation of organic matter by aquatic micro-organisms under aerobic conditions at 20°C for a period of 5 days. Clean water would have BOD value less than 5 ppm whereas highly polluted water could have a BOD value of 17 ppm or more.


Amines are derivatives of ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms of ammonia have been replaced by alkyl groups.

Amines are classified as primary, secondary & tertiary amines.


Simplest organic compounds of carbon and hydrogen

It is divided into Saturated and Unsaturated.

In Saturated Hydrocarbons, Carbon atoms linked together by single bonds. Example is Alkanes (Paraffins).

The chemical formula of Alkanes is CnH2n+2. Eg: Methane

In Unsaturated Carbon, atoms linked together by multiple bonds. It is divided into Alkenes (Olefins)and Alkynes.

The chemical formula of Alkenes is CnH2n. Eg: Ethene

The chemical formula of Alkynes is CnH2n-2. Eg: Acetylene


Wood spirit - Methyl alcohol

Crain alcohol - Ethyl alcohol

Absolute alcohol - 100% Ethyl alcohol

Methylated spirit (Denatured spirit) - Ethyl alcohol + 5 to 10% Methyl alcohol

Rectified spirit - Ethyl alcohol (95.87%) + Water (4.12%)


Acid amides are the derivations of carboxylic acid obtained by the replacement of hydroxyl group of COOH by amino group, eg: formamide, acetamide etc.


Esters are derived from the reaction between an acid and an alcohol with the elimination of water.

Esters (Smells)

Smell of Pineapple - Ethyl Butarate
Smell of Banana - Amyl Acetate
Smell of Jasmine - Benzyl Acetate
Smell of Orange - Octyl Acetate
Smell of Honey - Methyl Phenyl Acetate
Smell of Apple - Butyl Acetate