Theme images by Storman. Powered by Blogger.

Recent in Sports

Home Ads



Random Posts

Search This Blog



Sunday, 29 March 2020

Facts about States of Matter


Matter is anything that has mass, occupies space and offers resistance.

Matter undergoes changes which may be either chemical or physical change.

A physical change alters only the physical properties of matter and it is temporary.

eg: Melting of ice, boiling of water.

A chemical change alters the chemical proper-ties of substance and it is permanent.

eg: Corrosion of metals, curdling of milk.

Matter exists in nature as pure substances and mixtures.

Pure substances have same composition and properties.

Pure substances are divided into elements and compounds.

An element is the simplest form of matter and it cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical reaction.

eg: Oxygen, calcium, sodium, hydrogen etc.

The term 'element' was introduced by Robert Boyle.

An element consists of only one kind of atoms.

A compound is a substance made up of elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion by weight.

eg: Oxygen and hydrogen combine to form water which is a compound.

Compounds consist of more than one type of atoms.

Elements in a compound lose their individual chemical characteristics.

A material obtained by mixing two or more sub-stances in any proportion is known as mixtures.

eg: Mixture of sand and sugar.

In a mixture, the components do not lose their identity.

The components of a mixture can be easily separated by ordinary methods.

Mixtures are of two types. Homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures

Homogeneous mixtures have the same com-position throughout the sample.

eg: Salt solution, sugar solution etc.

Heterogeneous mixtures have different compositions and the components are distinguishable.

eg: Carbon, nitre and sulphur mixture (gun powder)

Changes of Matter

1. Physical - Temporary - Melting of Ice
2. Chemical - Permanent - Corrosion of metals

Matter is divided into Pure substances and Mixtures

1. Pure substances are divided into Elements and Compounds
2. Mixtures are divided into Homogeneous and Heterogeneous

Elements - Only one type of atom - Oxygen
Compounds - More than one type of atoms - Water
Homogeneous – Same composition - Salt solution
Heterogeneous - Different composition - Gun powder


There are seven stable physical states and two more meta stable physical states are known.

(i) Solid
(ii) Liquid
(iii) Gas
(iv) Plasma
(v) Bose-Einstein Condesate
(vi) Fermionic Condensate
(vii) Super Fludity

Solids are rigid and have definite volume and shape.

Kinetic energy of the particles is very small.

Liquids have definite shape but no definite volume.

Kinetic energy of particles in the liquid state will be higher than that in the solid state.

Gases have neither definite volume nor definite shape.

Gas molecules possess very high kinetic energy.

The most abundant physical state in the universe is plasma.

In plasma state matter exists as ions.

All stars and flame are in plasma state.

A Bose-Einstein condensate can also be called a "Super atom" because the cloud of many thousands of ultracold atoms behaves as if it were a single atom.

Fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures.

The physical state of liquid helium is super fluidity.

Helium liquid is called Super Liquid

The physical state of Glass is super cooled liquid, since it has no sharp melting point.

The meta stable state between solid and liquid is liquid crystal

All electronic display is based on liquid crystals

The state in which matter exists depends upon temperature and

For example, water is in the liquid state at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. At 0°C and atmospheric pressure, it exists as a solid (ice). When heated to 100°C at atmospheric pressure, water is converted into a gas (steam).

0 on: "Facts about States of Matter"