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Thursday, 25 July 2019

Comparison between Copper and Aluminium Conductor

Copper : 


Copper is reddish in colour and extremely soft and yielding. It offers high resistance to decay and are simply solderable. Its tensile strength differs from 3.15 to 4.73 tonnes/ sq cm. The specific gravity of the copper is 8.94 gm/cc at a temperature of 20oC. Its melting point is about 1084oC and boiling point is about 2595oC. The temperature co-efficient of annealed copper is about 0.00393 per oC whereas of hard drawn copper is 0.00382 per oC. It has a small contact resistance. The thermal conductivity of the plant is 385 and its atomic weight is 63.6. The resistivity of annealed copper is about 1.72 x 10-8 ohm-m and for that of hard drawn is 1.77 x 10-8 ohm-m at a temperature of 20oC. Hard drawn copper is soft and annealed copper is flexible.



Aluminium: 

Aluminium is a soft and white coloured metal and is extremely malleable and ductile. Its melting point is around 655°C and boiling point is about 2057°C. Its density is 2.7 gm/sq.cm at 20°C. The Thermal conductivity of pure aluminium is about 0.503 cal / cm sec/ °C. The temperature co-efficient of Aluminium is 0.0035 per °C at 20°C. Its resistivity is 2.8 x 10-8 ohm-m. It provides high resistance to corrosion and has a high contact resistance. Its tensile strength is 0.95 to 1.57 tonnes / sq.cm and is not solderable. When exposed to air a coat of oxide is formed and its tensile strength is 9 kg / sq. mm.

Comparison between Copper and Aluminium:

Because of its availability in abundance and cheap, aluminium is replacing copper in any field. The following are some of the points showing comparison between the two :

(a) Both are good conductors of heat and electricity, ductile and malleable and resistant to corrosion.

(b) Both have excellent efficiency and life and can be used as wire, cable, sheets for both low and high voltage applications.

(c) Aluminium is lighter than copper and therefore better suited for lighter parts such as dials and pointers of meters.

(d) For the, same length and resistance, the area of cross section of aluminium is 62% more than that of copper.

(e) The conductivity of aluminium is 75% of that of copper.

(f) Aluminium is brittle and therefore cannot be rough handled whereas copper is soft and flexible. It can withstand rough handling like twisting, bending etc.

(g) Aluminium is better suited for cold climate than copper.

(h) Aluminium is cheaper than copper.

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