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Saturday, 13 October 2018

Block Diagram of X-ray Machine

The block diagram of X-ray machine is shown in figure below. The function of each block of an X-ray machine is also explained below.

block diagram of x-ray machine
1. Multitap ac transformer 

We use a multi-tap ac transformer in order to select taps to compensate for incoming line variations. The number of outputs is referred to as 'taps' and it may range from 2 outputs to many outputs depending on the type of multi-tap transformer used. The advantage of multi- tap transformer is that it has different taps in different voltages. So we can select a higher voltage tap or lower voltage tap depending on the intensity of X-ray exposure needed. These also permit the operator to choose voltages for specific applications.

2. X-ray tube filament transformer:

This transformer transforms the ac line to supply power for heating the cathode filament. This power can be selected by taps to change the filament heat which in turn change the X-ray tube current and total energy delivered to the patient.

3. X-ray tube high voltage transformer and bridge rectifier 

This block together transforms the ac line to supply the high dc voltage for accelerating the electrons from cathode to anode. The high dc voltage is selected by taps.

4.Timing circuit  

Timing circuit is used to control the turn-on, turn-off and length of X-ray exposure delivered to the patient. It consists of an electronic counter that applies high voltage to the X-ray tube anode for short periods of time.

Advantages of X-rays in medicine:

1. X-ray can be used to produce an image of any body parts.
2. It is also available as a portable unit which can be used in hospitals widely and X-rays can be taken anywhere even in bedside.
3. It is less costly when compared to other imaging models like MRI scan.
4. It can produce fast results.
5. It is a comparatively easy technique.

Applications of X-rays in medicine: 

1. X-ray machines are used in healthcare for Visualizing bone structures and other dense tissues such as tumors.
2. The two main fields which use X-ray machines are radiography and dentistry.
3. Radiography is used for fast and highly penetrating images.
4. By using X-rays cancer cells can be treated in radiotherapy.

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