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Sunday, 22 April 2018

Applications of Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics are applicable in the following fields.

1. Personalised Medicine
2. Gene therapy
3. Microbial genome applications
4. Biotechnology
5. Forensic study of microbes
6. Insect Resistance
7. Growth of drought resistance varieties
8. Molecular medicine
9. Drug development
10. Climate Change studies
11. Antibiotic resistance
12. Crop development
13. Veterinary Science

Applications of Bioinformatics:

a. Prediction of Protein Structure:
It is a further vital application of bioinformatics. The amino acid series of a protein is called its primary structure. The primary structure of a protein is of vital importance in understanding the function of protein. The feeling of homology is also important in bioinformatics. It means homology can be used to find out the function of a gene. So in bioinformatics, if a sequence and its function are known, we usually assign a similar function for another gene with almost similar sequence.

b. Computational evolutionary biology:
Bioinformatics helps scientists to find out the evolution of huge number of organisms by determining changes in their DNA. The scientists can find out the evolution of different organism by tracing the changes in their DNA. In that sense, it is the field of bioinformatics that contributed substantially for the study of evolutionary biology.

c. Measuring Biodiversity:
Bioinformatic databases can be used to collect size of populations and to study how each organisms interact with other species. By using specialized software programs the collected information can be visualized and analysed for the purpose of analyzing biodiversity.

d. Analysis of mutations in cancer:
As we know, diseases such as cancer affect the cells well. In cancer, the genomes of influenced cells are reorganized in a complex way. Massive sequencing efforts are used to identify the sequence so as to make diagnosis of the diseases easy. Also the various changes that occur in the cells at the onset of such diseases can be studied deeply.

e. Sequence analysis:
Here an assessment of genes within a species or amid dissimilar species can show similarity between protein functions or relation between species. Now a day, computer programs are utilized to look for the genome of thousands of organisms. We can use sequence analysis in usual search for genes. Also we can use different computational tools to search the genomes of a vast number of organisms. By using these programs, we can identify the related and identical sequences. With the help of bioinformatics, automatic search tools for genes and regulatory sequences within a gene can be implemented.

f. Genome annotation:
Annotation is the method of spotting the genes and other biological characteristics in a DNA sequence. Even though the systems for the annotation of genes are almost similar, the programs for the analysis of genomic DNA are changing day by day.

g. High information image analysis:
Biomedical imaging is a core for the research and diagnosis of diseases. So with the help of bioinformatics, computational technology can be used to accelerate the analysis of large amount of high information content biomedical image clusters. Bioinformatics can also be used in clinical image analysis and visualization.

h. Modelling biological systems:
Bioinformatics is applied in modelling biological systems. It means that computer simulation software can be used to study the different systems of body such as cells and their structures. Also artificial models can be used to study the complex systems of various living beings. Virtual evolution is another field where we can understand the evolutionary processes via the computer simulation.

i. Comparative genomics:
The comparison between different genes and their structural and functional details are of very importance for the advancement of evolutionary biology. The main principle of comparative genome study is to find out the connection among genes or other genomic characteristics in different organisms.

j. Crop improvement:
This information enables new methods to learn gene expression patterns in plants. Comparative genomics of the plant genomes has exposed that the organisation of their genes has remained more preserved over growth time.

k. Study of climate change:
Study of genomics of microbes can be used to decrease atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Increasing levels of carbon dioxide emission are thought to contribute to global climate change. Bioinformatics study has proved that certain bacteria converts sunlight to cellular energy by absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide and converting it to biomass.

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