## Friday, 16 February 2018 ## AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, Universal Logic Gates

AND FUNCTION:

After having defined the positive and negative logic schemes, let us now define the basic logic operations. We begin our explanation with the AND operation, which is defined by the logical expression:

Z = A∙B = AB  (2)

Equation (2) can be read as Z equals A AND B. The dot (×) sign in the equation represents a Boolean product or AND operation. Even though we may read this also as A into B to indicate a multiplication operation, strictly speaking, it is a wrong usage in binary.  Now, consider the relations:

0 ∙ 0 = 0
0 ∙ 1 = 0
1 ∙ 0 = 0
1 ∙ 1 = 1 (3)

These are valid Boolean relations and represent the binary product of bits (binary digits) 0 and 1.

Generally, various English alphabets are used to represent binary 1s and the same alphabets, added with some special identification marks, are used to represent binary 0s. For example, if 1 is represented by letters a, b, x, y, etc., then 0 may be represented by characters a¢, b¢,  etc. Bit 0 is usually called as the complement of bit 1, and vice versa. In this text, we will be mainly using symbols of the form a¢, y¢, etc. to represent complementary variables.

The truth table related to the AND function is shown in Table Using the entries in this table, we test the validity of the AND expression given by Eq. (2). It can be seen that the entries in Table are the same as those given in Eq. (3).

Table Truth table of AND function

 A B Z = AB 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1

Using the circuit shown in Fig., we now prove the relations given in Table. In Fig., we find that switches A and B and a resistor R are connected in series with a DC power supply of +V volts. Assuming positive-logic operation, let 0 represent an open or OFF switch and 1 represent a closed or ON switch.

Now, consider the situation in which both the switches are open. This condition may be expressed as A = B = 0. In this condition, current I will not flow through R and hence the output voltage Z = 0 volt ≡ logic 0 (the symbol “ ≡ ” stands for equivalent to). It can be seen that I = 0, (and hence Z = 0) even when one of the switches is closed and the other remains open. There are two conditions in this case, and these two conditions may be expressed by the logic expressions A = 0, B = 1, and A = 1, B = 0, respectively. Current I will flow through R only when both the switches are closed; and then the output voltage Z = IR = +V. This condition may be expressed by the logic expression Z = 1, when A = B = 1,
Combining all the conditions given above, we find that the switching circuit shown in Fig.  performs the logic AND operation. Figure shows the logic symbol of the two-input AND gate.

THE OR FUNCTION

Let us now consider the logic OR operation, which is defined by the expression:

Z = A + B (4)

Equation (4) can be read as Z equals A OR B. The plus (+) sign in the equation represents a Boolean summing (i.e., OR) operation. Even though we may read this also as A plus B to indicate a summing operation, strictly speaking, it is a wrong usage in binary.  Now, consider the relations
0 + 0 = 0
0 + 1 = 0
1 + 0 = 0
1 + 1 = 1   (5)

It can be seen that the relations given above are valid summing relations in the binary number system. Hence we may say that the statement Z = A OR B may also be stated as Z = A plus B. The truth table of the OR function is shown in Table.  It can be seen that the entries of Table are the same as those given in Eq. (5). Figure shows an OR gate using two switches A and B connected in parallel to each other.

Table Truth table of OR function

 A B Z = A + B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

A resistive load R and a DC power supply +V are connected in series with this parallel combination. Current I flows through R and develops a voltage drop of +V volts across it when either A or B or both are closed. These three conditions may be expressed in the form: Z = 1, when A = 0, B = 1, or A = 1, B = 0, or A = B = 1. If both the switches are open, then no current will flow through the load, and hence the output voltage Z = 0 volt = logic 0. This represents a positive-logic OR operation. Figure shows the logic symbol of the two-input OR gate.

THE NOT (INVERSION) OPERATION

The NOT (negation) operation is characterized by an inverting operation. If a given function A represents a closed switch, then NOT of A represents an open switch and vice versa. The function NOT of A may be represented symbolically.  Figure shows a mechanical switch connected in series to a resistor R and a DC supply voltage of +V volts. Whenever switch A is open (i.e., A 0), no current (I) flows through R. Then, output Z = +V (1). Thus when input A = 0, we find that output = 1 = A′. Now, if A is closed ( 1), t I will flow through R and switch A. Since A is closed, it will act as a dead short across the output terminals making Z = 0 volt  ≡ 0 = A′. Thus we find that the circuit shown in Fig. performs the NOT operation.

Figure shows an implementation of the positive-logic NOT gate using an NPN transistor switch. When the input of the transistor is 0 V (i.e., A = 0), its output = +VCC volts (≡ A). When = +VCC volts (≡ 1 = A′), its output is 0 volt (representing 0 = A′)

The truth table of the NOT gate is shown in Table  and its logic symbol is shown in Fig. The bubble (small circle) at the tip of the triangle represents a negation (inverting) operation.

Table Truth Table of NOT gate

 A A′ 1 0 0  1

THE NAND (NOT AND) FUNCTION

Consider the AND truth table shown in Table. Let the entries in the third column of this table (representing output Z) be inverted (i.e., 1s changed to 0s and 0s changed to 1s). The resultant new truth table is shown in Table

Table Truth table of NAND function

 A B Z = (A B)′ 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

This table describes the operation of a NAND gate. NAND operation is obtained by combining an AND gate in series with a NOT gate. It can be seen that the NOT gate inverts the outputs of the AND gate to yield the NAND (NOT of AND) function. The NAND function is generally denoted as (AB)′, where the apostrophe symbol (′) denotes a negation, inversion, or complementing operation.

Figure shows a NAND gate constructed using mechanical switches. It can be seen that this circuit is a modification of the AND circuit shown in Fig.  In the AND gate, resistor R is connected below the switches. Since NAND is an inversion of AND, the position of R is inverted, i.e., it is moved to the position above the switches. Logic symbol of the NAND is shown in Fig.

THE NOR (NOT OR) FUNCTION

The working of the circuit shown in Fig. can be described as follows. Let initially, A and B be open. This means A = B = 0. In this condition, no current will flow through the circuit and hence I = 0. This makes output Z = +V ≡ logic 1. The same condition, viz., I = 0 and Z = +V logic 1, prevails even when A = 1 and B = 0, or A = 0 and B = 1. However, when A = B = 1, both the switches are closed and I flows through the circuit. It can be seen that in this condition, the output is shorted by the closed switches; hence Z = 0 volt ≡ logic 0. These actions represent a NAND operation. It may be observed that a NOT gate can be obtained by shorting all the input terminals of a NAND gate.

Consider the OR truth table shown in Table. Let the entries in the third column of this table (representing output Z) be inverted (i.e., 1s changed to 0s and 0s changed to 1s), as shown. Table shows the truth table incorporating these changes. This table describes the operation of a NOR gate. NOR operation is obtained by combining an OR gate in series with a NOT gate. It can be seen that the NOT gate inverts the outputs of the OR gate to yield the NOR (NOT of OR) function. The NOR function is generally denoted as (A + B)′, where the apostrophe (′) denotes a negation, inversion or complementing operation.

Truth Table of NOR function

 A B Z = (A + B)′ 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0

Figure shows a NOR gate constructed using mechanical switches. It can be seen that this circuit is a modification of the OR circuit shown in Fig. In the OR gate, resistor R is connected below the switches. Since NOR is an inversion of OR, the position of R is inverted, i.e., it is moved to the position above the switches. Logic symbol of the NOR is shown in Fig.

The working of the circuit shown in Fig. can be described as follows. Let initially, A and B be open. This means A = B = 0. In this condition, no current will flow through the circuit and hence I = 0, and Z = +V ≡ logic 1. However, when A = 1 and B = 0, A = 0 and B = 1, or A = B = 1, I will flow through the circuit and Z = 0 volt ≡ logic 0, It can be seen that under these conditions, the output is shorted by the closed switch (or switches); hence Z = 0 volt logic 0. These actions represent a NOR operation. It may be noticed that a NOT gate can be obtained by shorting the input terminals of a NOR gate.

UNIVERSAL GATES:

It can be seen that two NAND gates connected in series will give us an AND gate. However, two AND gates connected in series can not produce a NAND gate. Similarly, two NOR gates connected in series will give us an OR gate. But, two OR gates connected in series can not produce a NOR gate.
It may be noted in this context that a NOR operation can be converted to a NAND operation and vice versa. For such NAND-NOR conversions, we make use of a set of fundamental Boolean laws known as the De-Morgan’s laws.
It can now be seen that complex logic expressions can be realized by interconnecting connecting NAND (or NOR) gates alone in series, in parallel, and in combined forms. Therefore, NAND gates and NOR gates are called as universal gates. ## Positive and Negative Logic in Digital Electronics

LOGIC AND SWITCHING FUNCTIONS

A logic function is defined as a function that obeys the rules governing a logical statement. A logical switching network may be defined as a network formed by inter-connecting a finite number of switches so as to obey the logic rules associated with a logical statement. Let z be a logic function. We may express this as

z = f(xi) (1)

where xi = x1, x2, …, xm represent the inputs to the switching network, and z is its output. Equation (1) can be treated as a logic function, when we define the inputs and their mutual logical relations to give the output z. It may be noted that xi’s and z assume only two values, viz., 0 and 1.

A logic system can be tested for its performance by using what is called its truth table. In truth tables, entries are made using 0s and 1s. In practical circuit applications, a turned-on switch can be used to represent binary 0 and a turned-off switch can be used to  represent binary 1, or vice versa. Combinations of these switches can be used to generate any desired logic function. Such functions, as stated above, are called switching functions. The basic switching functions are AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR and XNOR, respectively. Complex logic functions can be obtained by combinations of these basic functions. It may also be noticed that all the other functions can be generated by using NAND or NOR functions alone.

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE LOGIC SCHEMES

As stated above, in all these operations, the associated variables can assume only two values, viz., 0 and 1. We also have stated that 0s and 1s can be represented by ON/OFF switches. We know that when an NPN transistor is off, its output will be at +VCC and this may be used to represent logic 1; when it is turned on, the output of the transistor will be 0 volt, and this may be used to represent logic 0. This logic scheme is known as the positive-logic scheme

If we use is a PNP transistor, then the on/off conditions reverse. When it is off, the output will be
VCC and this may be treated as logic 0. When it is in the on state, the output of the transistor is at 0 volt, and this can be used to represent logic 1. This logic scheme is known as the negative-logic scheme. In this textbook, bold numbers 0 and 1 will be used to represent logic 0 and logic 1, respectively.

The Positive-Logic System

Figure shows the pulse waveform used to define the positive-logic system (PLS). In PLS, we represent logic 0 by a voltage that remains at 0-volt level. In other words, in PLS

0 volt ≡  0

where we have used a bold 0 to represent logic 0. Similarly, in PLS, logic 1 is represented by a voltage of +V volts. That is,

+V volts ≡ 1

where we have used a bold 1 to represent logic 1. Here, a positive transition from 0 volt to +V volts indicates the logic transition from bit 0 to bit 1. As stated earlier, NPN transistors can act as switches that perform positive-logic functions.

The Negative-Logic System

There are two formats in the negative-logic system (NLS). Figure shows the pulse waveform defining Format I of NLS. As shown, 0 is represented by a voltage of +V volts. That is,

+V volts ≡ 0

Similarly, in Format I, a voltage level of 0 volt represents 1. Thus

0 volt ≡ 1
In Format II of NLS, we use a negative-voltage swing to represent negative logic. Figure represents this scheme. In this, 1 is represented by a voltage of 0 volt and 0 is represented by a voltage of −V volts. Thus in NLS (Format II),

0 volt ≡ 1

−V volts ≡ 0

## Thursday, 15 February 2018 ## Logic Reduction Introduction

Logic Reduction Introduction

Symbolic logic is a unique branch of mathematics that deals with functions or statements which are either true or false. For example, consider the statement that Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. We say that this statement is true. Next, consider the statement that Indian Ocean is the largest ocean in the world. We immediately say that it is false. Thus, as stated previously, symbolic logic makes use of only two states, viz., true and false, for carrying out its mathematical operations. Immediately we recognize that the binary number system, which employs only 0 and 1 as its basic numbers, can be used to represent the symbolic logic system.

The algebra of symbolic logic, known as the Boolean algebra, was formulated by the English mathematician George Boole. In his first book The Mathematical Analysis of Logic, published in 1847, he introduced the basics of symbolic logic. The theory was made more concrete in his book An Investigation into the Laws of Thought, published in 1854. However, this theory remained in a dormant state as a mathematical curiosity for nearly one hundred years. It got rejuvenated only in 1948 when the American electrical engineer Claude Shannon used this mathematical concept to develop his classical theory now known as the Information theory.

## Tuesday, 13 February 2018 ## Doping of Semiconductor

A Semi-conductor is a material which has a resistance in between that of a conductor and an insulator. A semi-conductor in its purest form is known as intrinsic semi-conductor. The main features of intrinsic semi-conductors are:

1. R more than metal conductors and less than insulators.
2. Negative temperature coefficient as R decreases with rise in temperature.
3. Electron valence of ±. This valence means the atom has four electrons in the outermost ring-halfway to the goal of 5.

Doping:

The special feature of the semi-conductor elements, however, is that the atomic structure allows their conductivity to be increased by adding impurity elements, a process called doping. The purpose is to increase the number of free charges that can be moved by an external applied voltage. When the number of free electrons is increased, the doped semi-conductor is negative or N type; reducing the number of free electrons makes the material P –type. Both germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si) can be used with either P-type or N-type doping, but silicon semi-conductor devices are most common.

 Element Symbol Atomic number No: of valence electrons Applications AluminiumBoronGalliumIndium Al 13 3 Acceptor impurity elementsTake electrons to form P-type semi conductor, Ga and In used for Ge, Al, and B for Si. B 5 3 Ga 31 3 In 49 3 GermaniumSilicon Ge 32 4 Intrinsic semi-conductorsUsed in pure crystal form to be doped with impurity elements. Doped semi conductors are extrinsic. Si 14 4 AntimonyArsenicPhosphorous Sb 51 5 Donor impurity elementsGive electrons to form N-type semi conductors, As and Sb used for Ge and phosphorous for Si As 33 5 P 15 5

Silicon and germanium have 5.0 × 10^28  and 4.42 × 10^28 atoms per  m^3 respectively and an addition of only one impurity atom per  10^7 or 10^8 semi-conductor atoms is sufficient to yield the desired properties.