Instrumentation

A. Biomedical Instrumentation:

Electrodes, Sensors and Transducer:

Electrodes in Biomedical Instrumentation
Transducers and Sensors
Capacitive and Inductive Transducers
LVDT - Advantages and Disadvantages

Bioelectric Amplifiers:

Bioelectric Amplifiers Introduction
Isolation Amplifiers
Isolation Amplifiers using Optical Isolation
Chopper Stabilized Amplifier Principle
Input Guarding in Biomedical Instrumentation

Electrocardiogram:

Electrocardiogram of the Heart
ECG Measurement System
ECG Machine Block diagram and working

Instrumentation for measuring brain function:

Electroencephalography EEG, Electrode Placement System
Block Diagram of EEG Machine
Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications of EEG

Intensive and Coronary care units:

Intensive Care Unit and Critical Care Unit
Central Monitoring Console in ICU

Medical Ultrasonography

Ultrasound Transducer Working
Ultrasound Scan Modes
Ultrasonic Flow Meter Diagram
Ultrasonic Blood Pressure Measurement
Advantages and Disadvantages of Ultrasonography

Modern Imaging Systems

X-Ray Tube Working Principle
Block Diagram of X-ray Machine
Computerized Axial Tomography How it Works
Advantages and Disadvantages of CT Scan
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan Test
Applications and Advantages of MRI over CT Scan
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan

Electromagnetic Interference to Medical Equipments

Electromagnetic Interference - types, sources, causes, effects
How does EMI affect the bio-medical sensors
Source Shielding and Receiver Shielding

Physiological Pressure Measurements:

Systolic Pressure and Diastolic Pressure
Non Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement
Pacing modes of Pacemaker
Block Diagram of Pacemaker System
Different Types of Defibrillators
Defibrillator Working Principle
Electromagnetic Blood Flow Meter and its Advantages

Human Respiratory System and its Measurement:

Human Respiratory System - functions, parts and parameters
Spirometer Working Principle
Respiratory Therapy Equipments
Types of Ventilator Modes
Microprocessor based Ventilators
Impedance pneumography

Bioinformatics:

Bioinformatics and its Applications
Protein Sequence Database Examples
Secondary Databases in Bioinformatics
Genome Information Resources
Specialized Genomic Resources (Boutique Database)
DNA Sequence Analysis in Bioinformatics
Dot Plot Sequence Alignment
Local Alignment and Global Alignment in Bioinformatics
Multiple Sequence Alignment Definition
Multiple Sequence Alignment Methods
What is PSI-BLAST
Secondary Database Searching & Hidden Markov Model

Biotelemetry system:

Biotelemetry Applications and Advantages
Block Diagram of Biotelemetry system
Single Channel Telemetry System
FDM and TDM Multiplexing
Implantable Telemetry System

Therapeutic and medical laboratory equipment:

Heart Lung Machine Block Diagram
Renal System Physiology
Hemodialysis Machine Block Diagram
Colorimeter Diagram
Diathermy - Types and Application

Electromyogram:

EMG Block Diagram Explanation
Micro and Macro Shock Hazards

B. Electronic Instrumentation

Signal Conditioners

Signal Conditioners in Instrumentation
AM Signal Generator
Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram
Logic Analyser Block Diagram

Bridges

Bridges in Electronic Instrumentation
Wheatstone Bridge Design and Working
Maxwell Bridge, Advantages and Disadvantages
Measurement of Inductance
Hay Bridge
Schering Bridge
Q Meter

Instrumentation

Open Loop and Closed Loop Control System
Examples of Open Loop and Closed Loop Control System
Manually Controlled Closed Loop System
Automatic Room Temperature Control
Comparison between Open and Closed Loop Control System
Data Acquisition System with Block Diagram
Classification, Elements, Configuration of Data Acquisition System
Signal Conditioning Methods
Single Channel Data Acquisition System
Multi Channel Data Acquisition System
Analog and Digital Data Acquisition Systems

Power Supplies

Power Supplies Introduction
Power Supply Characteristics
Regulated Power Supply Specifications
Load Regulation Formula
Transistor Series Voltage Regulator Theory
Transistor Shunt Voltage Regulator Working
Regulated Power Supply with Short Circuit Protection

Data Recorders

Data Recorders Introduction
Galvanometric Recorders
Potentiometric Recorder
Strip Chart Recorder with Block Diagram
Circular Chart Recorder with Diagram
XY Recorder Block Diagram & Working
Digital Data Recording System

Digital Controller System

Digital Process Controller
Digital Processing
Direct Digital Control Block Diagram
Computer Supervisory Control System

To be continued...

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