Tuesday, 19 December 2017

Respiratory Therapy Equipments

Under certain conditions some patients may be incapable of breathing in natural means. So they will be provided with mechanical assistance so as to deliver sufficient oxygen to the organs and tissues of the body. Respiratory therapy is a biomedical field in which mechanical assistance is provided for patients in respiration. Also some patients require higher than normal concentration oxygen. It is also provided by respiration therapy.

Oxygen therapy is a means for providing oxygen for the treatment of various conditions resulting from oxyen deficiency. The conditions can be a major heart failure, blood leakage, complicated conditions due to surgery etc. The required oxygen is provided to the patient from an oxygen cylinder through nasal catheters, masks, funnels etc. In some special cases the oxygen is introduced to the patient with medicine such as in nebulizer. If the humidity of the oxygen is to be increased it can be done by using a humidifier.

1.Inhalators:

Inhalators are devices used to supply oxygen or some other therapeutic gases to the patient. It is mainly used in the treatment of conditions such as asthma. Normally inhalators are used when the concentration of oxygen higher than that of air is required
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2.Ventilators and Respirators:

Ventilators are used when artificial ventilation is to be provided to the patient for a long time. It is otherwise called a respirator. The main function of respirator is to ventilate the lungs similar to natural ventilation as possible.Ventilators can be of positive pressure ventilators or negative pressure ventilators. The primary indications that a patient needs artificial ventilation are inadequate breathing on the part of the patient which results in lowerd blood oxygen levels. Mechanical ventilation is applied to adjust alveolar ventilation to a level that is as normal as possible for each patient.

a. Positive – pressure ventilators: Most ventilators used normally in positive pressure condition where the inspiratory flow is generated by applying a positive pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure. The air is expired passively. Positive – pressure ventilation is commonly used in ICU and CCU units.

b. Negative – pressure ventilators: It is mostly used in weak and paralyzed patients, Here negative pressure is produced on peripheral of the patient’s chest and pass on to the core to enlarge the lungs and allow the air to surge in. Today negative – pressure ventilation is used in barely a few circumstances. It offer appropriate option for patients with neuromuscular disorders.

3.Humidifiers:

The air or oxygen delivered to the patient during respiratory therapy must be humidified in order to prevent damage to the patient’s lungs. So all respiratory therapy equipments include special devices called humidifiers to humidify the air by bubbling an air stream through a water container. The benefit of using a humidifier includes reducing bacteria and dust particles from air. A respiration humidifier has a humidifying chamber, an inlet for feeding breathing air to be humidified, an outlet for releasing the humidified air.

4.Nebulizer:

 Nebulizer is a special device used to administer medication to the people in the form of a mist inhaled into the lung. For the treatment of some respiratory diseases such as asthma it is necessary that the patients is supplied with proper medicines. So in nebulizers, the medication is broken into controllable sized particles. It is done by a jet nebulizer or atomizer. Here the medicine is picked up by a high velocity jet of air or oxygen to break it in the form of aerosol which can be easily inhaled by the patient.

Another type of nebulizer is the ultrasonic nebulizer. Here an ultrasonic device is used to produce high intensity ultrasonic waves so that the medication can be easily disintegrated. The block diagram of Ultrasonic nebulizer is shown below.


Nebulizer offer the advantage  of delivering the medicine directly into the lungs and it is an effective way to administer asthma medicine to young children. The disadvantages of conventional nebulizers are that these devices are bulky and expensive, require alternating current and are not portable.

5.Aspirators:

Aspirator is a device which is used as a part of ventilator or  inhalator to remove mucus and other fluids from the airways so that the patient can breath smoothly. Aspirators are typically used for people such as babies who can’t blow out mucus out. The simplest of nasal aspirators is a bulb syringe, which has a squeezable bulb attached to a narrow neck with an opening. A squeeze of the bulb results in the suck out of mucus.

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